Brief description of the family
Rhino sizes are small to large. Body length 200-500 cm, tail length 60-76 cm, height at withers 100-200 cm. Weight 1000-3600 kg. The physique is heavy. The limbs are three-fingered, short and massive. The tail is thin. The neck is short and thick. The head is large elongated. The eyes are small, located on the sides of the head in the middle between the ears and nostrils. The upper lip is highly developed, mobile. Ears are long, protruding, oval with a small tuft of hair on top. On the muzzle in the nasal part there is a horn up to 158 cm long and sometimes behind it in the frontal part a second horn of shorter length. The skin is thick, in some places forms folds. Hair is sparse, bristle, sometimes almost completely absent. Coloring bodies are grayish to brownish and black. At the end of the tail is a hair brush. Fangs are reduced.
Common in the tropical regions of Africa and Southeast Asia, including the Malacca Peninsula and Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan.
Dwell in the savannah, in shrubbery along the edges of the forest and in the forest, in places where there is a watering hole. Keep alone, and during the breeding period in pairs. White rhinos are found in groups of up to 18 individuals. Active evening, night and early morning. A day is spent in secluded places. Eat various plants - mainly succulents. Periodically go to a watering place. There is no strict seasonality in breeding. The female usually brings one, rarely two cubs every 2-3 years. Duration of pregnancy 510-570 days. Soon after birth, the baby is able to follow the mother and remains with her until the birth of the next cub. Maturity comes from 3-4 to 7-9 years. Life span up to 50-60 years.
The number of rhinos in recent years as a result of excessive hunting has fallen sharply, and it remains practically only in national parks. Persistently pursued by hunters, and now poachers, mainly because of the horns highly valued in oriental medicine.
Previously, rhinos also lived in Eurasia, meeting with mammoths: woolly rhinoceros - Rh. tichorhinus It is known from ice age deposits, apparently lived even later.
Contents of the dissertation Candidate of Biological Sciences Khromov, Andrey Anatolyevich
CHAPTER 1. HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF THE QUARTERLY
Mammals of the Middle and Lower Volga.
Faunistic complexes of the Neopleistocene of the Volga region.
CHAPTER 2. MATERIAL AND RESEARCH METHODS.
CHAPTER 3. SYSTEMATIC PART. DESCRIPTION OF TAXONS.L
Squad Proboscidea Iliger, 1811 - Proboscis.
Elephantidae Gray family, 1821 - Elephant.
PERFORMANCE Perissodactyla Owen, 1848 - Equidrops.
Family Equidae Gray, 1821 - Horses.
Family Rhinocerotidae Owen, 1845 - Rhinos.
Squad Artiodactyla Owen, 1848 - Artiodactyls.
Family Camelidae Gray, 1821 - Camelids.
Family Cervidae Gray, 1821 - Deer.
Family Bovidae Gray, 1821 - Bovids.
CHAPTER 4. FEATURES OF THE TERRITORIAL AND
STRATIGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF LARGE MAMMALS OF THE MIDDLE AND LOWER VOLGA REGION IN
CHAPTER 5. FAUNISTIC GROUPS AND PALOELANDSCAPES OF MIDDLE AND LATER
5L. Characteristics of faunal groups.
5.1.1. Middle Neopleistocene.
22.214.171.124. Forest groups of large mammals.
126.96.36.199. Forest-steppe groups of large mammals.
188.8.131.52. Steppe groups of large mammals.
5L. 2. Late Neopleistocene.
184.108.40.206. Forest groups of large mammals.
220.127.116.11. Forest-steppe groups of large mammals.
18.104.22.168. Steppe groups of large mammals.
5.2. Dynamics of Neopleistocene communities and the natural environment of the Middle and Lower Volga.
CHAPTER 6. FEATURES OF THE MIDDLE-PRICE
Introduction of a dissertation (part of an abstract) on the topic “Large mammals of the second half of the Neopleistocene of the Middle and Lower Volga Region”
The relevance of research. Large terrestrial mammals were the most characteristic representatives of the terrestrial fauna of the vertebrate Quaternary period. Changes in their species composition, abundance, and ranges reflect both global changes in biotic processes and natural conditions in general, and changes in local landscape settings. Despite many years of research on mammals in European Russia, the data on the Volga region are very incomplete and require substantial revision, additions and systematization. In particular, the revision and synthesis of the vast material accumulated over many decades in regional and local local history museums of the Middle and Lower Volga region was urgently needed. Scientific processing of this material, clarification of geochronological dates, species composition and abundance of large mammals, allows for the first time to solve a number of issues related to the spatial differentiation of the Volga community of large mammals. This, in turn, makes it possible to identify the landscape and climatic features of the region and to trace their changes over the Quaternary.
Purpose of work. Revealing the spatial differentiation of the community of large mammals in the Middle and Lower Volga region, studying the dynamics of its species and ecological composition during the Middle and Late Neopleistocene.
1. Revision of literature and stock data on all known locations of large mammals of the Middle and Lower Volga region, including materials from typical locations.
2. Revision of age dates and the systematic composition of the collection materials of the Volga region local history museums, as well as private collections, and the specification of the species composition of the Middle and Late Neopleistocene mammals of the region.
3. Analysis of the species composition and abundance of the Middle and Late Neopleistocene large mammals by location and the identification of local faunal groups characteristic of different regions of the Middle and Lower Volga.
4. Identification of the ecological specifics of the Volga community of large mammals in the Middle and Late Neopleistocene.
5. Identification of landscape characteristics of the studied region and their changes in time in the Middle and Late Neopleistocene. 6. Justification and interpretation of the similarities and differences of the Sinhalese and Khazar theriocomplexes of the Middle Neopleistocene of the Volga region.
The main protected provisions.
1. The Volga community of large mammals in the Middle and Late Neopleistocene consisted of local faunal groups, which were associated with various landscape and climatic conditions.
2. Local faunistic groups of the Middle and Lower Volga Region reflect the landscape mosaic of the region (steppe, forest-steppe, forest, floodplain formations).
3. The dominance of open landscapes in the Middle and Lower Volga region is pronounced both on average and in the late Neopleistocene. The quantitative ratio of representatives of open and closed biotopes throughout the Middle and Late Neopleistocene was maintained.
4. Differences in the taxonomic composition of the Sinhalese and Khazar theriocomplexes of the Middle Neopleistocene of the Volga region are unprincipled. The ratio of the main groups of mammals and the number of thermophilic forms in both complexes were approximately equal.
1. For the first time, a large part of the information currently available on the findings of large Quaternary mammals of the Middle and Lower Volga region is generalized. Location directories compiled. Over 1000 samples are described for the first time.
(2) Local faunistic groups for the Middle and Lower Volga Region were first identified and their taxonomic and environmental changes from the Middle to the Late Neopleistocene were analyzed.
3. The possibility of using Neopleistocene faunal groups to highlight the alleged boundaries of the natural zones of the Middle and Lower Volga is shown.
Practical value and implementation of the work.
The results of the thesis can be used to solve a number of stratigraphic problems, build paleogeographic maps, as well as for a comprehensive study of the Quaternary sediments of the Volga region and adjacent territories. In addition, they serve as a reference guide for large mammals for paleontologists, geologists, biologists of local lore experts and everyone interested in collecting and studying vertebrate fossils. The practical implementation was the catalogs of the locations of large Quaternary mammals of the Saratov Volga, Middle and Lower Volga regions, compiled and published by the author, as well as the catalog of the collection of the Saratov Regional Museum of Local Lore. The definitions, revisions, and systematizations of the collections of local history museums of the Volga cities that were carried out in the course of the work made it possible to restore geological and geographical relationships for a large number of samples, to correct ideas about the generic and species composition of mammals in the region, and made it possible for museum staff to expand their expositions and improve the quality of work with visitors.
Publications and approbation of work.
The research results were reported by the author at the scientific conference of students and post-graduate students of the geological faculty of SSU “Geological sciences - 96”, at the All-Russian scientific conference “Problems of studying the biosphere” (Saratov, 1996), at the conference of young scientists of the International University of Nature, Society and Man “Dubna” "(Dubna, 1999), at the IV and V scientific conferences of young scientists and specialists of JINR (Dubna, 2000 and 2002), at the II International Symposium" The Evolution of Life on Earth "(Tomsk, 2001).
On the topic of the dissertation, the author published 14 scientific papers (4 of them in collaboration). Among them: 3 monographs (co-authored), 6 articles and 5 abstracts.
Source materials and personal contribution of the author.
The source materials were the many-year collections of many paleontologists, archaeologists and local historians of the collection of local history museums of the Volga cities, the collections of the Saratov State University, the collections of the Paleontological and Geological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, private collections and collections of the author (1995 - 2001). During his work, the author collected and summarized information on more than 5,000 samples from 511 locations. More than 1000 samples were studied and described in detail, including more than 200 samples from 11 locations according to the author’s collections. A total of 8 years of research, including 3 field seasons and 5 years of work with museum collections.
The volume and structure of the work.
The dissertation is represented by a manuscript of 231 typewritten pages, consisting of "Introduction", "Conclusion", 6 chapters and appendices. The text contains 47 tables and explanations for them, as well as 75 figures. The list of references includes 229 items.
The author expresses deep gratitude to the supervisors: Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor I.S. Barskov (Moscow State University) and Doctor of Biological Sciences A.K. Agadzhanyanu (Paleontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences) for constant help and sincere interest in the work. The author is grateful to the staff of the Department of Ecology and Earth Sciences and the leadership of the International University of Nature, Society and Man "Dubna", as well as to specialists in paleontology: V.G. Ochev (Saratov State University), G.S. Rautian, I.A. Dubrovo and I.V. Kirillova (PIN RAS), V.I. Zhegallo (State Museum of Fine Arts named after Vernadsky) and E.A. Wangenheim (GIN RAS) for valuable advice, comments and ongoing assistance in the work. The author is sincerely grateful to D.S. Khudyakova, employees of the Department of Nature of the Saratov Regional Museum of Local History N.M. Pantheeva, JI.M. Zabalueva and O.N. Vernova, employees of the Ulyanovsk Regional Museum of Local Lore O.E. Borodina and E.G. Chernova, Head of the Department of Nature of the Penza Regional Museum of Local Lore Yu. Kupchinin, Director of the State Joint Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan G.S. Mukhanov, director of the Samara Museum of History and Local Lore JI.B. Kuznetsova and chief custodian of funds N.M. Petrova, director of the Volsky Museum of Local History JI.A. Leonchik and the head of the nature department V.V. Brekhov, custodian of the funds of the Pugachev Museum of Local History N.I. Suleymanova, Director of the Khvalynsk Museum of Local History V.A. Nepachatykh, Director of the Petrovsky Museum of Local Lore T.I. Konovalova, the chief curator of the funds of the Balashov Museum of Local History G.A. Samorodova, Director of the Engels Museum of Local Lore S.I. Spiridonova, as well as Saratov archaeologists V.A. Lopatin and G.L. Yakubovsky for the provided materials, valuable information and assistance during research. In addition, this work would not have been possible without the kind help and support of the Director of the Natural History Museum of Ulyanovsk State University G.N. Assumption and the head of the studio "Art Fossils" I.A. Shumilkina (Ulyanovsk). The author is grateful to M.A. Zueva for the kind help in updating the text and in the design of the work.
BMK - Balashov Museum of Local Lore VMK - Volsky Museum of Local Lore GIN - Geological Institute RAS GMM KSU - Geological and Mineralogical Museum of Kazan State University.
GOM RT - State United Museum of the Republic
Tatarstan (Kazan). ZIN - Zoological Institute of RAS MGRI - Moscow Geological Exploration Institute MMK - Marx Museum of Local Lore PIN - Paleontological Institute of RAS PMK - Pugachev Museum of Local Lore SSU - Saratov State University SOMK - Samara Museum of History and Local Lore P.V. Alabina SMK - Saratov Regional Museum of Local History UMK - Ulyanovsk Regional Museum of Local History KMK - Khvalynsk Museum of Local History EMK - Engels Museum of Local History