Eucalyptus trees are usually upright shrubs, but less often quite large, fast-growing ligneous vines.
The stems of euonymus vines are strong, firmly entwining the supports in the counterclockwise direction. The bark on the old shoots is greenish brown. The kidneys are ovoid or elongated-ovoid, with brown scales.
Leaves obovate, rarely narrowly elliptic, leathery, dark green. The flowers are collected in semi-umbrellas, 10-40-flowered, on thick, not drooping ribbed peduncles, 4-membered flowers with greenish-white rounded petals.
The euonymus fruit is flattened-spherical capsules. Seeds are ovoid, dark raspberry, entirely covered with a light orange seedling.
Eucalyptus creepers naturally grow in Japan and China.
In the USSR, in the culture in the Crimea - from Yevpatoria to Sudak, in the Caucasus - in Georgia, Azerbaijan, on the Black Sea coast, in Central Asia - in the south of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. In the suburbs near the euonymus vines, buds open in mid-April.
The growth of shoots begins in early May and ends in the second half of June. These plants bloom in June. The fruits ripen in October.
Leaf fall begins in the second half of October.
Eucalyptus creepers o grow well in urban environments, both in sunny and in shaded places.
They are medium drought tolerant, medium-demanding to soils, but prefer loamy soil. Gas resistant.
The life form of the warty spindle tree is a deciduous shrub, sometimes a tree reaching a height of 2.0-2.5 m. In the form of a bush, the spindle tree usually does not exceed 2 m. The spindle tree is a typical representative of mesophytic plants growing in places where there is no excess moisture, but and not too dry.
The leaves are simple, with the opposite arrangement of leaves, may not fall for several years. Therefore, shrubs are considered half evergreen.
The root system of the seedlings is pivotal, like all plants from the class of Dicotyledonous plants, but after a couple of years the root system becomes fibrous, superficial, with many additional roots.
A characteristic species feature is small growths on lignified branches. Young shoots of green color are smooth, and adults are covered with dark brown tubercles, “lentils”. Thanks to these growths, oxygen enters the internal tissues of plants.
The euonymus flowers are small, inconspicuous, four-membered, collected in panicle inflorescences. Pollinated by insects (entomophilia). But since the main pollinators are flies, the flowers of the warty euonymus have an unpleasant odor similar to that of mice.
The fruit is a box with seeds and bright orange seedling. Sash boxes coral or pink, which gives additional decorative euonymus. Fruits and seeds are a morphological characteristic of the warty spindle tree.
Note: the warty euonymus is a very poisonous plant, its fruits cannot be eaten, and after contact with the bush it is imperative to wash your hands. Bright fruits can attract young children who can eat them. Therefore, the euonymus should not be planted in places where there are children (kindergartens, school grounds, playgrounds).
Warty spindle tree, belong to not whimsical shrubs, the cultivation of which is possible for any gardener. The shrub is frost-resistant, withstands dry periods, is not too susceptible to diseases and pests.
The shrub grows in partial shade, or in bright diffused sun. Withstands several hours of direct sunlight per day. But it is better that it be the morning or evening sun. The euonymus feels good in the darkened areas of the garden, where sunlight hardly penetrates.
Warty euonymus differs from most ornamental shrubs in that it prefers to grow on substrates whose acidity exceeds 7, i.e. alkaline.
Note: The optimum acidity is pH 7.1 - 7.9.
Shrub loves fertile soils, enriched with organic components, with good aeration. With stagnation of water in the ground and poor drainage, the euonymus roots rot.
If the substrate at the site of the proposed landing of the spindle tree is acidic, then lime is added to it, and then compost. To improve aeration (air penetration), sand and humus are added to clay or loamy soil.
Beresklet prefers moderate watering. On soils with a higher density, less shrub should be watered. In the summer, during a period of long drought, euonymus can be additionally watered under the root. In the autumn period, even in the absence of rainfall, euonymus is not watered.
Reproduction of a warty spindle tree
The shrub is propagated using seeds (generatively), which germinate better if sown in the fall. For germination, seeds need stratification (exposure to cold). To do this, you can hold the seeds in the refrigerator for about 3 months, at a temperature of 2-4 degrees (the seeds are covered with sand or perlite).
Vegetatively, warty euonymus is propagated by dividing shrubs, layering or cuttings. At the same time, both green and woody shoots can be used for cuttings. Cuttings are prepared after flowering, in early or mid-summer. The rooting period is from 40 to 50 days, planting in the ground - in the fall.
The use of euonymus in landscape design
The shrub is especially decorative in the fall: in addition to the exquisite fruits, the leaves of the euonymus acquire a bright red or orange-red color.
- Compositions with other shrubs (coniferous and deciduous),
- Solo planting in partial shade or shade,
- Group plantings, consisting solely of a warty spindle tree.