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Green Mantella (Mantella viridis)

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Green Mantella (Mantella viridis) - endemic of Northern Madagascar. The length of males is 22-25 mm, females - 25-30 mm. In habitats, regular seasonal alternation of dry and rainy periods exerts a strong influence. The basis of vegetation is deciduous tree species, annually dropping a thick layer of leaves on the ground.

Lifestyle

Active period starts at green mantella along with the first rains in December. Since a sufficiently high humidity lasts only for several months, the growth of young animals occurs quickly and in a short time. During the dry period, the frogs are kept in a layer of fallen leaves, and this feature of behavior manifests itself in them and in the terrarium. At this time, they leave their shelters only at the time of feeding.

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Appearance

The green mantella is the largest of all types of mantella. Females are larger and thicker than males, their muzzle is more square. Black mask from the muzzle stretches to the abdomen. A light streak runs along the upper lip. The middle ear is expressed distinctly (size 2/3 of the diameter of the eye). The upper half of the iris is slightly pigmented. The belly of the mantella is painted black with green spots. The back of the body and hind legs are painted in green and blue tones. The color of the back varies from yellowish to green.

All shades of green and yellow.

Males grow up to 28 mm, females - up to 35 mm.

The song of the male green mantella consists of a series of very short clicks. The duration of such a click is about 40 milliseconds. Frequency range from 2.5-6.2 kHz.

Nutrition / Food

The green mantella is a day hunter, spends most of the day looking for food. It hunts termites, ants, Drosophila and other small arthropods that are placed in the mouth of frogs.

Leads a land secretive lifestyle. He likes to swim.

Ritual of courtship

Courtship takes place secretly, under the bark or logs.

The incubation of eggs lasts from 2 to 6 days.

The eyes of the tadpoles are located dorsally. The length of the tadpoles is 15-18 mm. Tadpoles herbivores - feed on seaweed and detritus. A complete metamorphosis in mantells occurs in 45-65 days. After metamorphosis, the mantelles begin to hunt for insects (small aphids).

Terrarium for the Green Mantella

Type: terrarium or vivarium of horizontal type, covered with a mesh cover from above.
Sizes: the size for 3-4 individuals - 60x45x40 cm, for 10-12 frogs - 90x40x50 cm.
Substrate (substrate): sphagnum moss, or pebbles (medium size), or a mixture of sphagnum, compost and orchid bark. The substrate is changed every week. The same moss can be used (up to 3 times, no more!), For which it is thoroughly washed under clean running water.
Cleaning / cleaning: strong mantella got dirty, so cleaning should be done every 5-7 days, if there are many frogs - every 3-4 days. If the terrarium is not cleaned on time, the mantelles get sick with various diseases.
Temperature: daytime - 22-25 ° C, night - 20 ° C. Most mantells cannot tolerate high temperatures. If a UV lamp is used for heating, a slight deviation of temperature from the norms is allowed within 2-3 ° C.

Heating: using a heating pad (with a thermostat) located under 1/2 of the bottom of the terrarium.
Lighting: fluorescent lamps with a full spectrum of UV radiation. Daylight hours: in the summer - 14 hours, in the winter (November-March) - 11 hours.
Humidity: up to 80%. Love the frequent spraying of water.
Plants: a large number of plants: bromeliads, ficus climbing, amaranth white-tailed or tricolor. Plants are first planted in pots, and then placed in a terrarium. The bottom of the pots is covered with moss.
Pond: shallow bowl (2 cm deep, 10 cm in diameter) with clear water. The bowl is placed away from heat and light. Love to swim.
Design: you can add stones, logs, branches, everything that creates secret and elevated places.

Feeding the Green Mantella

You can give: when feeding mantelles, you need to observe diversity. The green mantella is completely insectivorous; it readily eats small crickets (up to 8 mm), Drosophila, and aphids. All insects should be free of pesticides and pesticides.
You can not feed: flour Khrushchak.
Frequency of feeding: adults - once a day, young (growing) - several times a day. Beware of overfeeding mantells!
Mineral dressing / vitamins: 4 times a week insects sprinkled with powdered calcium and vitamins.

Breeding green mantella

Preparation: In captivity they refuse to breed. To stimulate reproduction create artificial "rains".
Adjustable terrarium / aquarium: water temperature 23.3 ° C.
The ratio of males and females: 2-3: 1
Pregnancy / incubation: when breeding mantells in captivity, a large percentage of unfertilized eggs is observed. Therefore, if within 18-30 hours after laying, no signs of embryo development are observed in the eggs, it means that they were not fertilized.
Offspring: there are cases of cannibalism, so the tadpoles should be kept in small groups or individually.
Feeding young people: herbivore tadpoles (spinach or parsley leaves are pressed to the bottom of the terrarium with a stone), but can eat meat, fish food (trout).

Green Mantella Disease

Disease predisposition: mantelles are most often ill due to improper maintenance, and if they were caught in nature, they are most likely already sick (therefore, it is best to buy mantells born in captivity). With high humidity, mantella easily get sick with various bacterial infections. All new frogs must undergo 2-week quarantine.
The main diseases: infection with bacteria Aeromonas hydrophilia, HRMSS (muscle cramp syndrome due to high temperatures), other diseases of amphibians.

Organization of a terrarium for golden mantelles

Although these frogs are quite small, they need a spacious terrarium. This is due to the fact that males show increased territoriality: they are fighting for places of feeding and reproduction.

For a group of 6 individuals, a terrarium of 80 by 30 by 30 centimeters is suitable. Provided that in the terrarium there will be many shelters and objects that will visually delimit the volume. The number of shelters should correspond to the number of frogs.

It lives in tropical rainforests, in the lower and middle zones of the mountains.

Plants can be planted in the terrarium, but simple cages can be used. Terrariums with living plants are preferable, as they look more impressive.

The substrate in the terrarium should retain moisture while not sticking to the bodies of frogs. Do not use gravel; you can put wet paper towels on the bottom of the terrarium.

The terrarium should be equipped with a reliable lid, since golden mantels can climb even into small crevices.

These frogs do not tolerate very high temperatures and drying out air.

Humidity and temperature in the terrarium

These frogs are very temperature sensitive. In the terrarium, it is recommended to maintain a temperature of 20-23 degrees during the day, and at night it is lowered to 18 degrees. When the content of golden mantelles at a temperature above 27 degrees, they begin to cramp muscles, which end in death. But they tolerate drops in temperature to 14 degrees.

These frogs feel great in high humidity. If the humidity is low, then the mantles become lethargic, and with a dry terrarium their organisms are quickly dehydrated. Inside the terrarium, humidity should be 70-100%. For this, the dwelling of the mantellas is regularly sprayed with water, or a waterfall can be installed.

Contain mantells in terrariums horizontally type with a thick layer of hygroscopic soil.

Throughout the year, golden mantells should have a container of water, which is used as a reservoir. But the coast should be convenient so that the frogs can safely get out, because they are not important swimmers, and can drown if they can not get out of the water. Tap water is treated with air conditioning to remove chlorine and heavy metals; instead of tap water, bottled water works well.

Golden Mantella Feeding

These frogs feed on relatively small insects. The basis of the diet is three-day crickets and fruit, not flying flies. Such food is either ordered from large suppliers, or grown independently. Also, frogs do not abandon the larvae of mealworm, foottails, aphids, termites and wax moth larvae.

Initially, each individual is fed 10-20 insects every 2 days, this amount is adjusted depending on whether the pets lose weight or gain weight. Sometimes stronger males drive away weak ones from food, so it is recommended to arrange several places for feeding. After 2-3 feeding insects sprinkled with vitamins and minerals. And young animals are given vitamin feed every time.

Golden Mantella Breeding

Golden mantellas reproduce better when they are kept in groups in which there are several males for each female. To stimulate reproduction for three months, a cool and dry microclimate is created, reducing the illumination to 10 hours a day. The water level is reduced, and the terrarium is sprayed only a couple of times a week. At such a time, the health of pets should be monitored especially carefully, since these conditions are not favorable for them. If certain individuals lose weight or become lethargic, they are transferred to a terrarium with standard conditions.

Golden Mantella Eggs.

After 2-3 months, the temperature, humidity and intensity of feeding are increased. A few weeks after a cool and dry period, females usually begin to spawn.

Females lay eggs in a moist and warm crevice, for example, under bunches of moss. Often males fertilize only part of the calf. From one masonry, a different number of tadpoles from 10-90 individuals can be obtained. Unfertilized eggs have a bright white color, but then they quickly turn brown.

It is better to keep such frogs in groups, they are very fond of companies.

The eggs are harvested after 3 days and placed in a separate container in which they are grown. The eggs are placed on a bunch of Javanese moss, so that they are not completely in the water, but only touch it. Within a week, tadpoles will develop inside the caviar. The container must be closed so that it retains moisture. Caviar is periodically sprayed with water to make the tadpoles easier to hatch.

Golden Mantella Tadpole Care

The first days after the tadpoles hatch, they are not fed. Tadpoles are grown in plastic containers with Javanese moss and stems of scindapsus, tadpoles hide in plants, and they also improve water quality.

Newborn tadpoles of the golden mantella.

Initially, the water depth in the container is 5 centimeters, but over time it is raised to 10 centimeters. Tap water is used only if it has been treated with air conditioning, since tadpoles are demanding on water quality. The temperature of the water is maintained within the range of 18-26 degrees. But the fluctuations should not be too significant.

The tadpoles are fed a mixture of ground spirulina, ground chlorella, fish flakes and pellets for turtles. All the ingredients are ground in a mortar and given to the tadpoles every day. You can’t overfeed them, because the water immediately spoils. Tadpoles also eat algae from the walls of the container and their dead counterparts.

In adults, subcutaneous glands secrete toxins such as Pumiliotoxin, Allopumiliotoxin, Homopumiliotoxin, etc.

Water is not filtered, but is regularly changed, since the flow of water is harmful to fragile tadpoles. Every day, 1/3 of the water is replaced, and it is completely changed, only if problems arise.

The development of tadpoles from the same masonry often does not occur the same way. Tadpoles grow about 4-8 weeks. When their forelimbs develop, they get out of the water, at which time they are immediately placed in a separate container with a water level of not more than 1.3 centimeters. This container is also covered.

When the tail disappears at the tadpoles, small frogs are planted in the jade with wet paper towels at the bottom. There should be shelters, oak leaves, scindapsus leaves, or artificial plants in the hider.

According to the IUCN classification, the frog population of the Golden Mantella species, due to the systematic deforestation of tropical forests, is classified as Endangered Species (CR) and is under threat of extinction.

Young Mantella Care

When the tail completely disappears, the length of the frogs will be 7-10 millimeters. At this time they have a brown-bronze color. The frog is fed with tiny insects. Drosophila and newborn crickets are suitable for this purpose.

If the frogs are too small and still cannot cope with such food, then pieces of leaf humus from the street are placed in the container, in which the frogs are found for small insects.

When the frogs turn 2-3 months old, they are transplanted into a container with moist soil, where there are stones, pieces of bark and artificial plants for shelters.

Frogs are also looked after, as well as adult golden mantles, only the frequency of feeding changes. Young frogs should always have some food in the terrarium. 3-8 months after the frogs left the water, they have an adult color.

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