The vast majority of diseases and deaths in our domestic fish occur due to improper feeding. The trouble is that a novice lover sometimes does not even understand the importance and responsibility for their actions in matters of feeding.
How to feed
The main mistake of beginner aquarists is overfeeding. Excess food in the aquarium leads to several consequences:
- water deterioration,
- death from overeating or poisoning.
The norm is considered if the feed is eaten without reaching the bottom. Remove excess food with a net or siphon immediately after feeding. The size of the grains should correspond to the type and age of the fish. Large adult inhabitants eat large pieces. Juveniles are living dust or food particles that do not exceed the size of the eye of the fry.
During spawning, give less food. Two weeks before the breeding of future parents, feed protein foods.
The biggest and most common mistake is feeding the fish with dry food. Hungry fish pounce on such food, swallows. Further, this food in the stomach begins to rot. A very small part of it is absorbed, the rest falls into the water and changes its chemistry. The more dry food you give, the faster the water deteriorates. Unnecessary organisms develop. Dry branded high-quality feeds contain almost all the elements necessary for fish, but you need to use them carefully.
The second mistake is monotonous nutrition. With all the variety and availability of all kinds of feed, a novice amateur feeds his pets the same feed every day. The choice of feed is very large, skillful combination and alternation of them will allow you to grow healthy fish and focus on more interesting aspects of the life of the underwater kingdom.
Do not forget that the fish are mostly predators, there are very few species among them that eat exclusively plant foods.
Live food is necessary for fish during the spawning season. Getting a hefty portion of bloodworm, tubule, fish are more likely to spawn. Malek, grown on live food, is resilient and less susceptible to disease in the future.
A lot is written about the dangers of the pipe maker. In fact, this harm is greatly exaggerated. The tubule can contain anything you want, but there are simple ways to clean it. To clean the tubule, it is enough to rinse it for a week two to three times a day. When it turns pink, you can give it to the fish without any fear. Some lovers "soak" the tubule in milk, which also needs to be changed.
It is worth stopping at the storage of live feed. The pipe maker is stored on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator in a wide and low bowl with a small amount of water replaced daily. Bloodworms can be held between two wet wipes. You can use photo cuvettes as dishes.
Both bloodworms and tubule makers are preferably fed through special feeders. Harvested feed remains in the feeder, and lively comes out through small openings into the aquarium. A good quality pipe-maker taps into a ball when tapped. When buying, you need to pay attention to its appearance. Keeping live food long is not recommended.
How many times
Adult healthy fish in the aquarium need to be fed 1-2 times a day. Morning feeding is carried out 15 minutes after turning on the light, evening - 3 hours before bedtime.
Young fish are often fed: up to a month of age 6 times a day, and then transferred to four meals a day. After a month, the frequency decreases. Catfish with other bottom fish are fed in the dark when the aquarium population is sleeping.
In conditions of an artificially created habitat, fish are less mobile, as they are not forced to obtain food for survival. Therefore, it is correct to feed aquarium fish six times a week.
Once a week mini-hunger strike allows you to:
- prevent obesity,
- cleanse the body
- enhance sexual activity,
- activate recovery processes.
More often than not, predators are on a hunger strike because of the structural features of the food system. For the following fish, instead of a hunger strike, it is better to prefer a fasting day for food with spirulina:
Without any problems, you can grow daphnia yourself. In addition to feed tasks, daphnia is also of interest for observations. Especially for the fry, it is desirable to have several cans with rotifers. For a very small fry, lovers “keep at hand” ciliates.
Use yogurt as extra nutrition for fry. Some lovers cultivate enchitreus at home. Keeping it pretty easy. To enrich the worm with vitamins, vegetable waste, etc., must be added to its nutrition. Feeding fish with enchitreus can cause obesity, therefore, like any other, this type of food must be alternated.
Before feeding, the aquarist should wash his hands thoroughly. The remnants of soap or cream are fatal. You can not give spices and hot vegetable feed, acidic vegetables. When choosing a diet, fish features are taken into account:
Herbivorous animals with a long digestive system need to be fed often in small portions.
The correct diet contains:
Lack of fiber is offset by eating aquarium plants.
The basis of the diet of carnivores is live food. Predators rarely eat, but in large quantities.
- Protein is required from 45%.
- Fat - 3-6%.
- Fiber is also important. In vivo, they consume 2-4% plant foods.
Most aquarium fish are omnivorous, in their diet should be:
Feeding fish is made according to the method of nutrition. The location of the mouth plays a large role:
- Upper. For pets whose mouth is located on top, a food floating on the surface in the form of chips or flakes is suitable.
- Average. The inhabitants of the middle layers of water eat the food that is located directly in front of them.
- Bottom. Catfish collecting food from the bottom need heavy sinking food.
What should receive
For good growth, normal development and strong immunity of a pet, the following nutrients and trace elements are needed:
- vitamins of group B and D3, A, E, C,
- folic acid,
The main types of feed
- Dry. Dried larvae of krill, daphnia, cyclops. Sold in the form of tablets, granules and cereals. They are used if there is no time for preparing plant or live food. In humans, dried foods can cause allergies.
- Alive. Ciliates, bloodworms, small fish, brine shrimp, tubule and corpeter. Such food is stored in the refrigerator, as it spoils quickly. Very nutritious. Rinse thoroughly several times before feeding.
- Protein. Chicken eggs, invertebrate meat, liver and squid are chopped, used in the form of small chips. Stuffing warm-blooded animals is rarely served. It is poorly absorbed by fish, developing pathogenic intestinal microflora. Frozen. Live food in frozen form. Serve thawed.
- Vegetable. It happens natural (cucumbers, cabbage, peas, carrots, zucchini, nettle, dandelions), as well as branded. Natural food is boiled, peeled and cut into pieces. Purchased pellets with spirulina are also necessary for fish.
- Brand Name. Balanced feed. For feeding omnivorous fish acts as the main food. To diversify the diet, you can feed herbal and living supplements. There are universal and feed for a specific type of aquarium inhabitants.
Feed your fish combining several types of food. Omnivorous and herbivorous species should receive plant fiber daily.
It is preferable to give frozen feed. The ability to infect an aquarium is minimized. Freezing is easily dosed, does not deteriorate, retains taste and useful properties. There are mixtures of several types of worms on sale, due to which the feed becomes more nutritious.
If you leave the aquarium unattended for a couple of weeks, then use special feeds and automatic feeders with a dispenser. Briquette and capsule feeds slowly dissolve in water, providing nutrition for a long time. If feeding your fish during your absence is trusted by friends, tell them how to care for your aquarium inhabitants. You can pack the feed in equal parts to eliminate the risk of overfeeding and give the necessary advice.
With proper feeding, fish are protected from disease. Healthy fish live longer, have a bright color and mobility.
It is good to use cereals as plant food. Before using them, the cereal must be poured with boiling water and cooled, fed. With great pleasure, many cyprinids, catfish, and cichlids eat semolina.
When keeping a large number of fish, there is a need for a well-balanced and inexpensive feed.
Any heat treatment, as a rule, reduces the value of the product, therefore, the components in the preparation of minced meat are mainly used in raw form.
- Sea fish. Milk, caviar.
- Squid, octopus, shrimp, etc.
- Nettle. It can be harvested independently and used dry. Dandelions, etc. Not more than 10%.
- Red bell pepper ("Bulgarian"). Improving the color of fish. No more than 5%.
- Parsley, spinach, apple. No more than 2%.
- Bow. Not more than 1%.
- The juice of garlic or lemon. Not more than 1%.
- Carrots, pumpkins and other vegetables. Before adding it is necessary to cook no more than 5%.
- Beef liver. A rich source of active substances. In minced meat - no more than 5%. You can feed the fish and just pieces of the liver no more than once a week.
- Egg. The connecting element of minced meat.
- Food for dogs and cats. It should not contain feather meal. May cause intestinal inflammation.
- Dry and frozen fish food. Gamarus, daphnia, etc. As well as quality branded mixtures. Not more than 10%.
- Ground eggshell. Source of minerals. It is poorly absorbed.
- Vitamins tablets per 1 kg of minced meat. Sometimes I take vitamin D in oil in a pharmacy and moisten them with minced slices a bit before feeding.
- Iodized salt. At the tip of a knife. Compensates for iodine deficiency.
It is undesirable to use in minced meat
- The meat of warm-blooded animals. In cases of feeding fish with beef, lean meat should be chosen.
- River fish. Possible poisoning, parasites.
- Herbs and plants used in medicine. The effect of their use can lead to very sad and unpredictable consequences.
The components of the meat are washed, mixed and crushed in any way possible (meat grinder, mixer). For an aquarium with large fish, grinding the components with a knife is quite suitable.
We put the finished mass in a plastic bag and roll it into a layer with our hands. Store in a freezer.
Before feeding, we break off the required amount and after thawing we place it in the aquarium. You can throw frozen pieces without thawing.
However, if you have bottom fish, they may lose lunch because ice does not sink in water, and as the thaw thaws, all food can be eaten by other fish.
Gelatin, agar-agar are used as binders. In addition, you can fill the minced meat with a strong broth obtained after boiling the bones.
- 1kg putasu (in our market it is one of the cheapest marine fish).
- 200 g squid. They must first be cleaned.
- A bag of dry branded food.
- A tablespoon of dry nettle.
- One raw egg.
Pass the fish and squid through a meat grinder twice. Add dry food, nettle, egg. Mix thoroughly. Stuffing is ready.
Theoretically, minced meat can be stored in a freezer for a rather long time. In fact, the activity of certain substances and their suitability for feeding fish can vary greatly. It is advisable to make a volume that is completely eaten by the fish in a week.
The amount of feed set is determined experimentally. Feed should be given in small parts, observing the reaction of the fish. Better if the fish is a little underestimated. Residues of feed should not lie at the bottom. The frequency of feeding depends on the age of the fish. The fry is fed more often, adult fish will be enough once or twice a day.
A lot has been written about the benefits of fasting for humans; all this is also true for fish. The gastrointestinal tract needs rest. During fasting, the body is cleansed. Sick fish is recovering faster, and newly acquired fish are better acclimatized. Once a week, it is useful to have a complete hunger strike. The exception is fry, which needs food all the time.
Adult fish without starvation can starve for a week.
Types of feed
Modern pet stores present a ton of similar products from a wide variety of manufacturers. If desired, the aquarist will easily select the optimal food for the fish, depending on their natural preferences. To get really good, and, most importantly, suitable food for your pets, you need to consider the options available on the market.
Frozen fish food can be purchased at every pet store. In fact, these are all the same crustaceans and worms that were described above. Of course, other products like ciliates, cyclops, etc. are added to them. This food has already been processed by the manufacturer and can simply be stored in the freezer. It is often produced in the form of tiles.
How to choose the right food
Choosing the best diet is easy. The main thing is to pay attention to the characteristics of individuals. Fry needs some nutrients, adult fish - others. Meat products are suitable for predators, herbivores - food with algae and plant elements. If there are near-bottom fish in the aquarium, then, accordingly, they need to be given various pills that fall to the ground, and those who actively swim at the surface are better suited for non-sinking flakes, etc.
In general, picking up food for fish is not difficult. You can navigate by the following criteria:
1. Viviparous species. They are quite unpretentious in terms of diet. They can be given regular cereal, as well as frozen food like bloodworms,
2. Predators. You don’t have to invent anything here. The basis of the diet is live food, but it is also advisable to give fish and seafood. It’s important that the fish do not starve, otherwise they may attack their neighbors,
3. Bottom fish. They need food to sink to the bottom. The ideal option is tablets. But you also need herbal or animal supplements. If the aquarium contains, for example, ancistruses, then they can be given zucchini, pumpkin, cucumbers, etc. If predatory catfish, then coronetra, tubule,
4. Malek. When growing fish, you need to take into account the characteristics of the species. In general, live dust (consisting of daphnia, rotifers and other small creatures), ciliates (can be obtained independently at home), nematodes, potato worms and egg yolk are suitable for fry.
How to replace fish food
Sometimes aquarists do not trust manufacturers and sellers, and believe that they can do without such products. This approach also has the right to life, because indeed, with small cash and time costs, you can make frozen, dry and live food with your own hands, as well as replace it with standard foods.
If herbivorous fish live in the aquarium, then scalded vegetables, herbs or fruits can be given instead of food.
If goldfish or other herbivorous species swim in the aquarium, then instead of food they can be given vegetation. It can be boiled vegetables (pumpkin, zucchini, cabbage) and some types of fruits (for example, banana). You can also collect nettle leaves, dandelion and plantain. Then they will need to be scalded with boiling water and thrown into the aquarium, tied with a thread to the stone.
You can also make plant food yourself. As ingredients, all of the above products are suitable. That is, you can, for example, cook dandelion, pumpkin and cabbage, add hornwort or duckweed to them (if there is one in the aquarium). All this is twisted in a meat grinder or blender, poured on a baking sheet and put in the freezer for several hours. When the composition is thickened, it must be broken into pieces, put in a bag and stored in the freezer.
You can also choose a diet for predatory fish. Large individuals can be given pieces of low-fat fish (pollock is suitable) or seafood (shrimp, squid). If desired, you can also make meat feed yourself. The principle is similar to vegetable. That is, the ingredients are collected, twisted into a single mass.
Other products can also be added. For example, it can be a chicken egg, offal (beef or pork liver, heart), turmeric, paprika, etc. All ingredients are mixed in a blender, then spread with a thin layer on a substrate under the laminate (or other surface with foil) and dried. Then the resulting feed is crumbled and packaged in bags or jars.