The supposedly monophyletic taxon may be part of Sciurognathi. The composition and phylogenetic structure are not clearly defined. In classical systems, Gliridae is often included here. The superfamilies Dipodoidea and Muroidea form the monophyletic taxon Myo-donta, for which Geomyoidea is sometimes considered a sister group.
Superfamily Dipodoidea s.lato
Monophyletic taxon. In classical systems, only 1 family with 3–6 subfamilies is recognized, in cladistic systems it is divided into 4–5 modern families, 1 more in a fossil state.
The Mousetrap Family - Sminth> Brandt, 1855
= Sicistidae Allen, 1910 (sometimes considered a valid name). In classical systems, it is included in Zapodidae or is considered as a subfamily in Dipodidae s.lato. Only 8 genera, including 1 modern. With avg. paleogene. The boreal part of Eurasia.
Mice of the Mouse - Sicista Gray, 1827
At least 10 species. Steppes, boreal and mountain forests of Eurasia from the North. and Center. Europe through the North. Kazakhstan and the south of Siberia to the Baikal region, the Hindu Kush and Tibet, Primorye and about. Sakhalin.
betulina Pallas, 1779. Plain and low-mountain (up to 2000 m) forests of the North., Center. and East. Europe, North Kazakhstan and the south of Zap. Siberia, Pribaikalye, taiga in the middle reaches of the river. Yenisei.
strandi Formosov, 1931. South East. Europe, Ciscaucasia, possibly the Center. Europe
subtilis Pallas, 1773. Steppes from the Center. and south east. Europe to East. Kazakhstan, sowing parts of Xinjiang, Altai, Baikal.
severtzovi Ognev, 1935. Southeast of Europe.
caucasica Vinogradov, 1925. North. Caucasus and, possibly, Transcaucasia (details are unknown due to the allocation of species, "doubles").
kazbegica Sokolov et al., 1986. Subalpine sowing belt. macro slope of the Greater Caucasus.
kluchorica Sokolov et al., 1980. Subalpine sowing belt. macro slope of the Greater Caucasus.
armenica Sokolov et Baskevich, 1988. Subalpine belt of the Lesser Caucasus.
tianschanica Salensky, 1903. Tien Shan Mountains in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Xinjiang.
napaea Hollister, 1912. Foothills and mountains of East. Kazakhstan, Altai, south of Zap. Siberia.
pseudonapaea Strautman, 1949. Foothills and mountains of East. Kazakhstan, Altai.
concolor Buchner, 1892. Hindu Kush (North-West Pakistan, North India), East. Tibet (Center. China).
caudata Thomas, 1907. North. - East. China, Primorye, about. Sakhalin.
Family Half-Jerked - Zapod> Coues, 1875
In classical systems, it is included in the composition of Dipodidae s.lato as a subfamily, sometimes Sminthidae (as a subfamily) is included here. It is phylogenetically divided into American and Asian groups. 3 modern and 4 fossil genera. Mountain deciduous forests Zap. Tibet, boreal forests of the North. America, in the first half of the Neogene is also Europe.
Mouse Mice, Chinese - Eozapus Preble, 1899
1 view. Mountain forests East. Tibet
setchuanus Pousargues, 1896. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Half-Jerks - Zapus Coues, 1875
3 types. Boreal forests of the North. America.
hudsonius Zimmermann, 1780. Northern part of the North. America, Appalachian mountains, south of the Rocky Mountains.
princeps Allen, 1893. The lower and middle zones of the mountains of the western part of the North. America.
trinotatus Rhoads, 1895. Midwest North. America.
Genus Half-Mice - Napaeozapus Preble, 1899
1 view. Boreal forests of the eastern part of the North. America.
insignis Miller, 1891. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
External signs of an Ethiopian bamboo rat
Ethiopian bamboo rats reach a body size of 16.5 -18 centimeters. Tail 5 -15 cm.
Ethiopian bamboo rat (Tachyoryctes macrocephalus)
Rodents are adapted for life underground. The body is dense, massive, the neck is not pronounced. The head is large, short. The auricles are small and hide in the hairline, as in representatives of the genus Tachyoryctes, or protrude above the head, as in species of the genus Rhizomys. The eyes are small. The legs are short. The fingers are armed with short and flat claws, similar to nails. The tail is devoid of scales; instead, there are rare hairs on the skin.
The body of the rodent is covered with long, thick and soft to the touch fur.
In large bamboo rats, the hairline is coarse and short. The color of the back is gray, like a gray-haired bamboo rat. The brown rat has a brown-chestnut or brownish-gray hue. The lower body is lighter, in a small bamboo rat, an ash-gray color. The mammary mammary glands are usually one or two pairs, while the inguinal glands are three pairs.
Ethiopian bamboo rat adapted for life underground.
The structure of the skull is associated with an underground lifestyle. The form is flat, compressed in the dorso - ventral direction. The arches of the cheekbones are pronounced and widely spaced. The hole under the eye is small. The dental formula has 16 teeth. All three buccal teeth belong to molars. The crowns of these teeth are flat and high. In Tachyoryctes species molars constantly grow all their lives. Incisors are developed, large, white or orange. The large intestine in rodents exceeds the length of the small intestine. There is a spiral fold in the cecum.
The diploid set of chromosomes in a large bamboo rat has 50 chromosomes, and in a small bamboo rat it reaches sixty. This is an important species trait in the definition of rodents.
Bamboo rats are found on the plains and forests
Subfamily Allactaginae s.str.
3 genera. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
Genus Earth Hare - Allactaga Cuvier, 1837
3-4 subgenus, 9 species. Dry steppes, semi-deserts, deserts Southeast. Europe, Asia, North. Africa.
Subgenus Paralactaga Young, 1927
euphratica Thomas, 1881. Deserts, semi-deserts and upland dry steppes of the Levant, Asia Minor, Transcaucasia, North. Iran, East Afghanistan.
Subgenus Allactaga s.str.
major Kerr, 1792. Forest-steppes, steppes and semi-deserts Vost. Europe, Kazakhstan, the south of Zap. Siberia.
vinogradovi Argyropulo, 1941. Foothill semi-deserts in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan.
elater Lichtenstein, 1825. Deserts of Kazakhstan, Central Asia, Iran, Zap. and South. Afghanistan, West Pakistan, Northwest China and Southwest. Mongolia, East Ciscaucasia, Transcaucasia.
hotsoni Thomas, 1920 (? Firouzi Womochel, 1978). Low-mountain dry steppes and semi-deserts in the Center. and southeast. Iran, South Afghanistan, West Pakistan.
severtzovi Vinogradov, 1925. Deserts South. and southeast. Kazakhstan, Central Asia.
Subgenus Oriententactaga Shenbrot, 1984
sibirica Forster, 1778. Deserts, dry plain and mountain steppes of Kazakhstan, North. Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, North-West. and Center. China, Mongolia, Tuva, Transbaikalia.
balikunica Hsia et Fang, 1964. South and southwest of Mongolia, north of Xinjiang.
bullata Allen, 1925. Plain and foothill deserts and semi-deserts, dry steppes of Mongolia, North-East. and Center. China.
Subgenus Scarturus Gloger, 1841
tetradactylus Lichtenstein, 1823. Coastal rocky deserts of Egypt and Libya (North Africa).
Genus Jerboa Bobrinsky - Allactodipus Kolesnikov, 1937
1 view. The flat deserts of Central Asia.
bobrinskii Kolesnikov, 1937. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Thick-tailed jerboas - Pygeretmus Gloger, 1841
= Tarbaganchiki. 2 subgenera (often considered to be genera), 3 species. Deserts and semi-deserts of Ciscaucasia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia, North. Iran, North Xinjiang, South Mongolia.
Subgenus Alactagulus Nehring, 1897
pumilio Kerr, 1792 (acontion Pallas, 1811). Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Subgenus Pygeretmus s. str.
platyurus Lichtenstein, 1823. Kazakhstan.
shitkovi Kuznetsov, 1930. Southeast. Kazakhstan.
Three-fingered jerboas family - Dipod> Fischer, 1817
Monophyletic taxon. In the traditional extended interpretation, it includes all Dipodoidea, in the cladistic one it does not include Sminth> Zapodidae, Allactactagidae. In the modern fauna there are 3 subfamilies and 8 genera, 1 subfamily and 5–7 genera are fossils. Plain semi-deserts and pu-pinnacles Southeast. Europe, Asia, North. Africa.
Tribe Salpingotini Vinogradov, 1925
Three-fingered dwarfish jerboas genus - Salpingotus Vinogradov, 1922
4–5 species (sometimes divided into 2–3 subgenera). Sandy Deserts and Semi-Deserts Center. Asia and Kazakhstan, Afghanistan.
heptneri Vorontsov, Smirnov, 1969. Center. and East. Kazakhstan
pallidus Vorontsov, Shenbrot, 1924. Center. Kazakhstan, North Uzbekistan
thomasi Vinogradov, 1928. Presumably the west of Afghanistan.
crassicauda Vinogradov, 1922. Center. Asia, East Kazakhstan.
kozlovi Vinogradov, 1922. The Gobi Desert in Mongolia and China.
Gender Dwarfish Pakistani Dwarfish - Salpingotulus Pavlinov, 1980
Sometimes considered as part of Salpingotus. 1 view. Sand Deserts of Balochistan.
michaelis Fitzgibbon, 1966. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Subfamily Dipodinae s. str.
Genus Jerboa - Dipus Zimmermann, 1780
1 view. Sandy and dense deserts and semi-deserts from the Lower Volga region through the south of Zap. Siberia, Kazakhstan, Central Asia to the North. Iran, Mongolia and North-East. China.
sagitta Pallas, 1773. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Imranchiki - Stylodipus Allen, 1925
3 types. Ciscaucasia, Kazakhstan, Center. Asia
andrewsi Allen, 1925. Center. and South. Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Gansu.
sungorus Sokolov et Shenbrot, 1987. Southwest. Mongolia is also possibly the north of Xinjiang.
telum Lichtenstein, 1823. Southeast Europe, Kazakhstan.
Genus African jerboas - Jaculus Erxleben, 1777
2 subgenus, 3 species. Different type of desert in the North. Africa, Arabia, Levant, in the south of Iraq and Iran, the west of Afghanistan and Pakistan, in Central Asia.
Subgenus Haltomys Brandt, 1844
orientalis Erxleben, 1777. Arabia, Levant.
blanfordi Murray, 1884 (turcmenicus Vinogradov et Bondar, 1949). Iranian Highlands, Central Asia.
Subgenus Jaculus s.str.
jaculus Linnaeus, 1758. North. Africa, Levant, Arabia, South. Iraq, Southwest Iran.
Genus Jerboa sandy - Eremodipus Vinogradov, 1930
It occupies a separate position. 1 view. South Kazakhstan, lowland Central Asia.
lichtensteini Vinogradov, 1927. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Subfamily Paradipodinae Pavlinov et Shenbrot, 1983
Genus Jerboa - Paradipus Vinogradov, 1930
1 view. The flat sand deserts of Central Asia and Iran.
ctenodactylus Vinogradov, 1929. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Superfamily Muroidea s. lato
Probably a monophyletic taxon is sometimes considered in the rank of a family in which all key subgeneric groups (up to 15 in number) are considered as subfamilies. 7 modern and 3-4 fossil families.
Bamboo Rat Family - Rhizomy> Winge, 1887
Refers to basal radiation Muroidea. Close to Spalacidae, it is sometimes seen as a subfamily in Cricetidae or Muridae. Perhaps a paraphyletic group. 2 subfamilies, 3 modern and 5 fossil genera. From early Neogene. East Himalayas, Center. and South. China, Indo-China, about. Sumatra, East Africa.
Subfamily Rhizomyinae s.str.
Genus Rat Small Bamboo - Cannomys Thomas, 1915
1 view. Open and forested areas of the lowlands of Vost. Himalayas, South Tibet
badius Hodgson, 1841. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Rat Bamboo - Rhizomys Gray, 1831
2 subgenus, 3 species. Mountain (1200–4000 m) bamboo forests East. Himalaya, East and South. Tibet, Indochina, Malacca Peninsula, about. Sumatra.
Subgenus Rhizomys s.str.
pruinosus Blyth, 1851. East. Himalayas, East and South. Tibet, Indochina, north of the Malacca Peninsula.
sinensis Gray, 1831. East. Himalayas, South Tibet, East Indochina.
Subgenus Nyctocleptes Temminck, 1832
sumatrensis Raffles, 1821. South. China, Indochina, Malacca Peninsula, about. Sumatra.
Subfamily Tachyoryctinae Miller et G>, 1918
Perhaps an independent family of afrotropic origin.
African rat bamboo genus - Tachyoryctes Ruppell, 1835
In the most fractional classification, up to 12 species. Plain and mountain (up to 4100 m) mesophytic savannas of various types, alpine meadows Vost. Afrika.
macrocephalus Ruppell, 1835. Alpine savannas and meadows of the south of the Ethiopian Highlands.
splendens Ruppell, 1835. Ethiopian Highlands (1000–4000 m).
ankoliae Thomas, 1909. Uganda.
naivashae Thomas, 1910. Kenya.
annectens Thomas, 1891. Kenya.
audax Thomas, 1910. Kenya.
storei Thomas, 1909. Kenya.
ruandae Lonnberg et Gyldenstolpe, 1925. Central part of the Rift Zone.
ruddi Thomas, 1909. Northern part of the Rift Zone.
spalacinus Thomas, 1909. Kenya.
rex Heller, 1910. Kenya.
? daemon Thomas, 1909. Central part of the Rift Zone.
Flemish Family - Spalac> Gray, 1821
Close to Rhizomy> Myospalax . In the fossil state, there are 2 subfamilies, 4 genera; in the modern fauna, 2 genera of the nominative subfamily. From early Neogene. Steppes and semi-deserts South., Center. and southeast. Europe, West Kazakhstan, South-West. Asia, North Africa.
Genus Small mole rats - Nannospalax Palmer, 1903
3 types. Danube basin, Balkans, Transcaucasia, Asia Minor and Western Asia, Sinai, North. Africa
leucodon Nordmann, 1840. The river basin. Danube, Balkans to the South-West. Ukraine.
nehringi Satunin, 1898. Asia Minor, Transcaucasia.
ehrenbergi Nehring, 1898 (?carmeli Nevo et al., 2001, galilei Nevo et al., 2001). Levant, Sev. Africa.
Rod Gossip - Spalax Guldenstaedt, 1770
Up to 5 species. Center. and southeast. Europe, West Kazakhstan.
giganteus Nehring, 1898 (? Uralensis Tiflov et Usov, 1939). Ciscaucasia, Zap. Kazakhstan.
arenarius Reshetnik, 1939. South of Ukraine.
graecus Nehring, 1898. Center. Europe (Carpathian mountains).
zemni Erxleben, 1777 (polonicus Mehely, 1909). Center. Europe
microphthalmus Guldenstaedt, 1770. Steppe regions East. and southeast. Of Europe.
Ethiopian Bamboo Rat Spread
Ethiopian bamboo rats spread throughout China south of the Yangtze River. Rodents inhabit India, Burma, Nepal, Thailand. They are found in Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia. They live on the Mallacca Peninsula and further to Sumatra. Also common in the tropics of East Africa. Distributed in Somalia, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zaire, Kenya, Uganda.
Ethiopian Bamboo Rat Habitats
Bamboo rats are found on the plains and in forests. Inhabit sandy areas and habitats with grassy vegetation, bamboo thickets. In the mountains, the Ethiopian bamboo rat rises to 4 thousand meters.
Ethiopian bamboo rats are underground inhabitants.
Ethiopian Bamboo Rat Lifestyle
Ethiopian bamboo rats are underground inhabitants. They dig a great land, paving a complex system of tunnels. Rodents hide in holes in the daytime. They come to the surface only early in the morning or at dusk.
Ethiopian bamboo rats dig holes, acting with claws and teeth.
They move the dug ground under the abdomen with the forelimbs, and throw the sand back with their hind legs. Species belonging to the genus Tachyoryctes dig only with claws. They gnaw at the roots with their teeth. When digging, an earthen loose pile is formed, then the rat with its muzzle moves and compacts all this mass back along the burrow. Ethiopian bamboo rats hide their home in dense thickets of tropical and subtropical plants.
The density of rodent settlements is more than two and a half thousand individuals per 1 square kilometer.
In search of edible roots, bamboo rats are constantly laying new passages that form a complex system of tunnels.
More than 50 meters of underground passages laid underground, per one rodent. Digging labyrinths is necessary for finding food and for creating a reliable shelter.
While other diggers simply hide in their burrows, bamboo rats are intensively forage, constantly digging new tunnels in areas with dense grass stands. Having examined the plant, the rodent blocks the tunnel from the inside with an earthen cork. Such specialization in nutritional terms makes it possible to have a reliable source of nutrition, to avoid competition. In addition, due to the constant threat of predators, especially the Ethiopian wolf, rats can always hide in tunnels located deeper.
Ethiopian wolves are waiting in ambush for bamboo rats, they watch when rodents appear on the surface from a new tunnel, sometimes predators also pursue rats in their tunnel, carefully watching their appearance on the surface. Ethiopian bamboo rats, being very cautious animals with large incisors, are able to defend themselves from predators and seriously injure potential enemies.
Ethiopian bamboo rats dig holes, acting with claws and teeth.
Ethiopian bamboo rat food
Ethiopian bamboo rat finds food on the surface of the earth. But it gets close to the roots of plants underground. Outside, she nibbles everything that grows near the entrance to the hole. And he does it very quickly, in just twenty minutes. Then hiding in a hole, closing the entrance to the shelter.
Ethiopian bamboo rat eats the underground organs of plants, prefers bamboo, as well as seeds and fruits.
Ethiopian bamboo rat finds food on the surface of the earth
The Importance of Ethiopian Bamboo Rat in Ecosystems
Ethiopian bamboo rats, reaching a size of 25 centimeters, are the main food of Ethiopian jackals.
In places where the distribution ranges of predators and rodents overlap, Ethiopian bamboo rats are the main food of the endangered Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis).
Local residents also catch bamboo rats and eat their meat.
Causes of Ethiopian Bamboo Rat Decrease
Tachyoryctes macrocephalus, also known as the big-headed digger, Ethiopian giant rat rat, African digger or giant mole rat is endemic to the Ethiopian mountains. Subtropical or tropical high-altitude pastures inhabited by the bamboo Ethiopian rat are at risk of degradation.
Loss of habitat can lead to the extinction of unique rodents.
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