Betula pendula Roth (B. verrucosa Ehrh.)
Betulaceae S. F. Gray - Birch
The generic name Betula is the ancient Latin name for the tree, probably derived from the Celtic betu (birch). Pliny calls the birch “gallica arbor” (Gallic tree), that is, for the Romans northern.
The species definition verruca (wart) characterizes young twigs covered with frequent resinous warts. Warty birch
Hanging birch (warty birch)
Drooping birch or white is a deciduous tree up to 15-20 m tall, with a high ovoid through-crown and drooping branches.
The bark is white, smooth, black at the base of the trunk. In old trees, the bark of the base of the trunks with deep cracks is black and gray. Small birches have a brownish bark. Easy to stratify
The trunk of an adult birch is smooth, white, with black lentils along the bark.
Thin branches are usually drooping, young shoots are red-brown, bare, covered with resinous glands - warts.
The leaves are alternate, long-leaved, oval-triangular or rhombic-ovate, with a wide wedge-shaped base or almost truncated, sharply dentate on the edges, smooth, young, adhesive, 3.5 to 7 cm long and 2.5 to 5.5 wide see. Stained with resinous glands.
Birch is a monoecious tree, as it contains stamen and pistil earrings.
The flowers in cylindrical earrings are dark brown in color, arranged in 2 pieces at the ends of the branches. Short - female (2-3 cm) and loose drooping - male (7 cm). Male earrings 5–6 cm long, hanging, 2–3 at the ends of branches, stamen flowers in dichasias of 3 each. Female earrings, cylindrical, 2–3 cm long, single, on short lateral branches, 2–3 pistillate flowers in the sinuses three-lobed bracts. Ovary upper, two-celled.
The fruit is a single-seeded oblong-elliptical nut with two membranous wings, 2 to 3 times the width of the nut. Weight 1000 nuts 0.17 - 0.2 g.
It blooms in the period of leaf blooming - in April - May, the fruits ripen in August - September. Lives up to 120-150 years.
Drooping birch It has an extensive Euro-Siberian range, in most of Russia it is continuous, with isolated "islands" in Kazakhstan, the Crimea and the Caucasus. The range of this birch covers the entire European part of Russia (except the far north and south), the Urals, Western and partially Central Siberia, and the Caucasus. In the east, the dangling birch reaches Baikal, however, its isolated locations are also noted in the Lena and Aldan basins, much east of the border of its continuous distribution. The most abundant in Western and Central Siberia, as well as in the middle zone of the European part of Russia. Outside of Russia, it grows in Central and Western Europe, northern Kazakhstan, Tarbagatai, Dzhungarsky Alatau, Western Tien Shan.
Dwarf birch is distributed almost throughout the country. We have about 120 species.
Hanging birch forms derivative forests that occur on the site of felled or burned pine forests, spruce forests, larch forests, oak forests. It quickly populates the liberated territories and dominates them, creating only temporary groups, and is subsequently replaced by other tree species. It forms indigenous forest stands only in forest-steppe and steppe regions, especially in Western Siberia, where it forms birch pegs characteristic of the landscape of the forest-steppe zone. Often found in different types of forests as an impurity. It grows on dry and moist sandy, loamy, chernozem and stony-gravelly soils. It tolerates various climatic conditions, highly winter-resistant (excellent), drought-resistant (good), and therefore grows from the tundra to the steppe zone. It grows quickly, is well renewed by shoots and self-sowing. Seeds are carried by the wind and easily take root on dry and moist soils.
It is almost not damaged by diseases and pests (good). It blooms regularly and bears fruit (good). Earrings bloom in late April, when the leaves bloom, the fruits ripen in August. Photophilous, but tolerates partial shade, prefers light fresh soil.
Biologically active substances are contained in various parts of birch.
In the cortex - betulin, phytosterol, glycosides, saponins, resinous acids, tannin and essential oil.
In the kidneys - essential oil, ascorbic acid, saponins, bitterness, tannins, resin, grape sugar and yellow coloring matter.
The leaves contain essential oil, ascorbic and nicotinic acids, glycosides, saponins, triterpene alcohols and inositol bitterness.
Vitamins E, PP were found in inflorescences (catkins).
The seeds contain a drying, oily oil.
Birch sap contains 0.5–2% of sugars, organic acids, carbohydrates, glucose, fructose, vitamin PP, potassium, calcium, iron salts, and trace elements.
Used in the national economy. From wood make skis, furniture and other products. The extract from May leaves, depending on the concentration, stains wool and cotton fabrics in yellow, black-brown, yellowish green and golden yellow. Bark serves as a good tanning agent. Tar is obtained from wood. When burned, the coals remain hot for a long time. The ash contains up to 30 trace elements, so it is a valuable fertilizer and a means for spraying plants from pests. Birch bark goes for the manufacture of boxes and utensils. Hanging birch is widely used in green building.
It is not by chance that this tree is sung in poems, songs, and paintings.
Botanical description of birch
Birch is a well-known tree of the birch family (Betulaceae) up to 20 m high.
In the Far East alone, more than 10 species of birch trees grow, among which there are trees and shrubs. As medicinal plants are usually considered warty birch (Betula pendula Ehrh.) And hanging birch (Betula pendula Roth.). It is these two types that are taken as the basis for this article.
Bark Birch smooth milky white.
Leaves warty birch triangular or rhomboid, pointed, odorous, young branches and leaves are covered with resinous warts. In birch, the leaves are ovate or rhomboid-ovate, at the base rounded or have a heart shape, young branches without warts, fluffy.
Flowers have no cover, at the ends of branches are collected in long earrings.
Birch blooms in April - May, at the same time foliage blooms.
For the manufacture of medicines using birch buds, young foliage and juice.
The kidneys are harvested in early spring, during the period of their swelling, and always before they bloom and remain sticky from resinous substances. The branches are cut off with the kidneys, tied into bundles (brooms) and dried. Then the buds are cut off from the branches and cleaned of earrings. As a rule, kidneys are harvested during deforestation or when branches are harvested for brooms.
Young leaves are harvested in spring during flowering, when they are odorous and gooey. Juice is taken in early spring, making cuts on the trunks, where tubes or other devices for draining the juice are inserted.
They birch buds in the shade or in a room that is well ventilated, spreading in a thin layer, in ovens (after baking bread) or in special dryers at a temperature of 25-30 ° C. The kidneys, which have already opened, lose their healing properties when dried, after drying they become dark brown or brown.
Use in landscape design
It is decorative in the shape and texture of the crown, light bark of the trunk, early spring flowering, sunny yellow autumn foliage. Decorative durability 40-50 years.
Suitable for clean group and single plantings, as well as in combination with dark coniferous species in large meadows and as an avenue in parks.
The chemical composition of birch
The birch buds and leaves contain essential oil (consists of betulenic acid, betulene, betulol and other compounds), resins, betuloritic acid in the form of butyl ether, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, hyperoside, carotene, ascorbic and nicotinic acids. Chaga (birch fungus) contains humic like chagic acid, polysaccharides, oxalic acid, steroid, sterol and other compounds.
Pharmacological properties of birch
Galenic forms from birch leaves have a moderate choleretic and diuretic effect. On models of exudative inflammation, anti-inflammatory activity of birch leaves was revealed. In addition, birch leaves have antiseptic, antifungal properties, act on helminths, trichomonads and giardia. The antiviral activity of plant preparations is less pronounced than that of other products of synthetic and plant origin (oxalin, gossypol, etc.). Under experimental conditions, birch sap destroys urinary stones, mainly of phosphate and carbonate origin, without affecting oxalate and uric acid stones. Chaga (birch fungus) does not have a specific effect on the cancerous tumor, however, the animals have some delay in the tumor process.
In addition, during experimental studies it was found that chaga preparations increase the protective properties of the body, act as general strengthening agents. In experiments on rabbits, it was noted that solutions of birch fungus with intravenous administration regulate the activity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
On the electroencephalograms of the cerebral cortex, a distinct increase in the spontaneous bioelectrical activity of the cortex is observed in the experiment, which indicates the beneficial effect of galena chaga preparations on the metabolism and function of some parts of the cerebral cortex. Side and toxic effects with the intravenous administration of chaga preparations prepared in various ways were not observed.
Collection and processing of medicinal raw materials
The main harvesting areas for birch buds are: Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories, Bryansk, Vologda, Novgorod, Kaluga, Pskov, Tomsk Regions.
The subject of the collection. Unblown, swollen, resinous buds, young leaves, birch mushroom - chaga.
Birch buds are harvested during logging in winter or early spring, at the beginning of bud swelling. Branches on which there are kidneys are cut off and connected in bundles (brooms). Before drying, small bundles of branches with buds must be kept for 2–3 days in a cool dark place to prevent buds from blooming, and then proceed to drying. Dried in the open air or in dryers at a temperature of 25 - 30 °. After drying, the kidneys are threshed. Threshed buds are cleaned by sifting through a sieve, removing earrings, branches, buds that have opened, and other impurities. In the dried state, the raw material should consist of conical bare buds covered with tightly pressed opaque or shiny scales of dark brown color. The taste is a little tart, bitter. The smell is pleasant, balsamic.
Young leaves break off in the spring, when they have not yet become coarser. For drying, they are spread out with a layer of 3-5 cm. The leaves are used as export raw materials, since in Central and Western Europe they are used as a diuretic.
Birch sap is harvested during sap flow from trees to be felled, as various methods of disturbing the bark bring harm to the birch. At home, the juice is used fresh.
Leaves are collected in April – May, birch sap in the spring.
The reserves of birch buds and leaves are practically unlimited.
Chaga (phytopathogenic parasitic fungus) is formed on living trunks of old birches. It is more common in the northern part of the range of birch. Chaga can be harvested year-round.
Buds and leaves are stored in cloth and paper bags or in glass jars for 2 years.
Contraindications to the use of birch preparations
With functional renal failure, it is not recommended to use infusions and decoctions, since they contain resinous substances that are irritating to the kidney tissue.
With prolonged use of birch tar and ointments containing it, skin irritation may appear, and with eczema the process sometimes worsens.
With prolonged continuous use of chaga preparations (birch fungus) in some patients there is an increased excitability of the autonomic nervous system. These phenomena gradually disappear with a dose reduction or drug withdrawal.
Dosage forms of birch, method of application and dose
Infusion of birch leaves (Infusum folii Betulae). Two teaspoons of chopped leaves are poured into 200 ml of boiling water and insisted for 30 minutes. After cooling, it is filtered through cheesecloth, sodium bicarbonate is added at the tip of a teaspoon and drunk 3-4 times a day with an interval of 3-4 hours.
Birch tar (Pix liquida Betulae) is used externally for skin diseases in the form of 10-30% ointments, liniments. With prolonged use, skin irritation and exacerbation of the eczematous process may occur.
Tincture of birch buds (Tinctura Gemmarum Betulae). Prepared for 90% alcohol in a ratio of raw materials to the extractor 1: 5. Assign 1 tablespoon per reception as a choleretic and diuretic. Externally used for rubbing and compresses.
A decoction of birch buds (Decoctum Gemmarum Betulae). Prepared at the rate of 10 g per 200 ml of water, boiled for 30 minutes, cooled for 10 minutes and filtered through cheesecloth, take 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day.
Birch bud infusion (Infusum Gemmarum Betulae): 10 g (1/2 tablespoon) of the kidneys are placed in an enamel bowl, pour 200 ml (1 cup) of hot boiled water, cover and heat in boiling water (in a water bath) for 15 minutes, cool for 45 minutes at room temperature, filter, the remaining raw materials are squeezed. The volume of the resulting infusion is adjusted with boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared infusion is stored in a cool place for no more than 2 days. Take 1 / 2-1 / 3 cups 2-3 times a day in a warm form 10-15 minutes before meals as a diuretic for edema of cardiac origin, as a choleretic - for diseases of the liver and biliary tract.
Birch buds are available in packs and plastic bags of 100 g each. Store in a cool, dry place.
Birch juice (Succus Betulae) harvested in spring. Apply only fresh juice in 1 cup 2-3 times a day for lung diseases, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis as a restorative agent. For cosmetic purposes, birch sap is washed on the face with acne and age spots.
Carbolen (Carbolenum) - activated birch charcoal - available in the form of granules and tablets. Apply it for flatulence, colitis, increased acidity of gastric juice, 1-2 tablets 3-4 times a day. Carbolen is also used for poisoning by heavy metals, alkaloids, and foodborne toxic infections (sausage poisons, mushrooms). Assign 20-30 g per reception in the form of a suspension in water or in the following composition: activated carbon - 2 parts, tannin and magnesium oxide - 1 part. Two tablespoons of the mixture are poured into a glass of warm water at a time.
Infusion of birch fungus chaga (Infusum innonotus obliquus) is prepared as follows: the mushroom is washed with water, then soaked with boiled water so that the fungus’s body is immersed in water, and insisted for 4-5 hours. The mushroom is ground either on a grater or passed through a meat grinder. The water in which the mushroom was soaked is used for infusion. One part of the crushed mushroom is poured with 5 parts (by volume) of water remaining after soaking the mushroom, heated to 50 ° C. Insist for 48 hours, the water is drained, the precipitate is squeezed through several layers of gauze. The thick liquid obtained after this is diluted with water to the original volume. The prepared infusion can be stored for 3-4 days.
With tumors, adults are prescribed at least 3 glasses during the day in fractional portions.
Chaga infusion is non-toxic, but it is limited in case of diseases accompanied by fluid retention in the body. In these cases, the infusion of the mushroom can be used instead of tea and other drinks, or use the infusion of double strength (2 volume parts of the mushroom in 5 parts of water).
Thick extract of Chaga birch mushroom prescribed inside, the daily dose is 3.5 g. The extract is prepared for 3 days as follows: the bottle with the extract is heated by immersing it in water at a temperature of 60-70 ° C (the cork is removed from the bottle beforehand), 2 teaspoons of the extract are diluted in 3/4 cup heated boiled water. Take 1 tablespoon 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals.
Chaga tablets are also available. Take 1 tablet 4 times a day 30 minutes before meals. Treatment is carried out for a long time - courses of 3-5 months with breaks of 7-10 days.
Birch in history, myths and legends
Since the time of the tribal system, the birch has been a sacred tree and a symbol of the genus in most of the Ugro-Finnish peoples of the North.
Birch symbolizes femininity, purity and light. Since time immemorial, it has been associated with fertility and healing magic. In ancient times across Europe birch branches beat off the boundaries, flogged offenders and cast out evil spirits. By the way, birch twigs are also present in the village rite of exile of the spirit of the old year.
As an emblem, birch and birch leaf is used in the heraldry of the Germanic peoples and less often in Czech and Russian.
In the German, Baltic, and Central Asian traditions, birch symbolized ritual purity. In Germanic heraldry of the 12th century the main emblematic image of a birch is a conventional bush-like tree with golden foliage and a silver or golden trunk. A later image of birch in German and Swedish heraldry is a green bushy tree with a white (silver) trunk, regardless of the color of the shield field. From the 18th century The image of a birch with the so-called “closed crown” was taken, and from the 19th century - stylized with 8 branches and 7 roots, 39 leaves on each side and one leaf at the very top.
In Czech heraldry, the image of a whole birch tree is practically not found, it is replaced by the image of a triangular birch leaf of green color of a natural form.
In Scandinavia, birch was considered a sacred tree of the gods of Thor and Freya. There, the appearance of leaves on a birch marks the beginning of agricultural work, for farmers it is a sign to sowing spring wheat.
In the Druidic tradition, birch is a tree of origin, a symbol of the first month of the year (December 24 - January 21) and the first letter of the Druid alphabet.
In Rome, birch rods were used when the consul entered the board, and birch leaves symbolized the invitation.
In Scotland, birch was associated with ideas about the dead in the afterlife. Also, birch bark was used as bedding in the oldest graves of the lower reaches of the Dnieper and the Southern Bug.
On the British Isles, villagers used to chase away the spirit of last year with birch branches. In Gaul, birch branches were also used to expel evil spirits, as well as to remove bonds or to unfasten criminals or lunatics.
In the east, birch was the main element of shamanistic rites, in which it played the role of the Cosmic Tree, connecting the earthly and spiritual levels of the universe.
According to the ancient notions of Mansi and Khanty, the sacred mother-birch, belonging to the goddess Kaltash, was gold-leafed and grew seven silver trunks from one base.
The central pole of round Asian yurts was made of birch, which over time made it a sacred tree in the rituals of initiation and a symbol of the spiritual ascent of man.
In Russia, birch has long been a symbol of spring and girlhood, fertility and light. In the past, it was planted near houses to summon good spirits and drive away evil ones. Birch, as a "tree of origin", has traditionally been used as a material for the manufacture of cradles. Arches were made from birch, it provided tar for the lubrication of wooden cart wheels, the juice and decoction of birch buds helped with various diseases, birch brooms not only stranded the huts, but also soared in the bathhouse.
The practical use of birch in magic
The magical properties of birch are very diverse, especially often used by Slavic sorcerers and witches.
It is good to use birch branches at a wedding to protect the newlyweds from the evil eye and spoilage. To do this, decorate the wedding train with birch branches, and several twigs are placed under the threshold of the house where the wedding will take place. Also, during a wedding or painting, it is good for the groom to have several birch leaves in his pocket - this will protect him from the machinations of evil sorcerers and witches.
Birch leaves can be used to increase fertility. To do this, just scatter them in the garden. Although there is a second, more powerful magic way to increase fertility. It is necessary to burn several birch logs and to shower the garden with the ash left from them. The use of this method, according to magicians, will bring a rich harvest.
If the birch rods moistened with the blessed water in the church lightly run the cattle - she will have a good offspring. In addition, if you wash your pet once a month with water mixed with birch sap, then no one will jinx it and it will not hurt.
In ancient times, under the threshold of a new stable, birch logs were buried in order to protect themselves from evil spirits.
In almost all European countries, cradles for babies were made from birch wood, as birch is not only a good protective agent against evil eye and spoilage, but also an excellent remedy for calming babies. Children in birch cradles sleep more calmly and shout less.
Many healers and healers advise using not only birch twigs or leaves, but also a birch smell. It is believed that it helps well from longing, sadness, melancholy and depression, and it is also recommended to use it to relieve nervous tension, relieve stress and headache. Birch has a calming aura.
Since ancient times, magicians have been using the smell of birch to help victims of witchcraft, spoilage, and the evil eye. A person who has been magically attacked by an evil sorcerer or witch is fumigated with birch leaves and given birch sap to drink. It is believed that such a procedure helps to restore the damaged aura and balance the energy flows in the body, leading them to equilibrium.
In ancient times, hunters used birch as a defense against evil spirits. In the second half of the nineteenth century, birch barks were written petitions for goblin nests that were nailed to trees.
Birch creates an atmosphere of peace and harmony around the house, creating a kind of “golden mean” between activity and peace. But it should be noted that there is an opinion that it is undesirable to plant birch trees in the yard, and best of all in front of the house, or rather, in front of the fence.
With the help of birch, evil spirits are driven out of the house. For this, the house is either fumigated with birch leaves or birch twigs baptize every corner of the house, repeating the prayer “Our Father” three times.
Some of the most powerful protective amulets are made from birch bark. Especially miraculous power is attributed to birch jewelry amulets made on the Trinity.
Some healers and healers strongly recommend taking baths with birch leaves for healing, or applying birch bark to diseased areas of the body.
Collection 1. Dried and crushed feathers of green onions and May leaves of birch (dry) mix in equal parts. Pour 2 tablespoons of a mixture of 0.5 liters of boiling water and insist for 1 hour in heat, then strain. Take 1/2 cup 2 times a day, preferably in the morning: in the morning and at lunch. Take 1/2 teaspoon of pollen at the same time.
Collection 1. Birch buds are recommended to be chewed slowly after eating, after having slightly kneaded them. Gargle with birch sap.
Collection 2. Mix 1 teaspoon of birch ash with 1/2 teaspoon of table salt, grind well into powder. Moisten the index finger with water, dip it in this mixture and rub the sore spots inside the throat. After 2-3 procedures, a sore throat usually resolves.
Collection 3. Crush branches with birch buds, brew boiling water and insist for 1 hour. Take 2-3 cups a day inside.
Collection 1. For 1 liter of water, take 5 g of dry birch leaves and cook 15 g of oat grains in a sealed container for 10 minutes, strain. Drink the broth warm an hour before meals. The course of treatment is 10 days.
Collection 2. Pour 3-4 g of dry buds or 6-8 g of dry leaves (10-15 g of fresh) white birch 0.5 l of water, boil for 15 20 minutes. Drink 1/2 cup 3-4 times a day.
Collection 3. Pour spring birch leaves into a bottle, pour vodka, insist in a dark place for one month, periodically shaking the contents. Store in a cool dark place without filtering. Rub the tincture, while taking it inward, 20-30 drops 3-4 times a day 30 minutes before meals.
Collection 4. Fresh (can be steamed) birch leaves to cover the diseased joint, bandaged with a slightly woolen scarf. The procedure is especially useful if the compress is done all night.
Collection 1. Take 100 g of dry crushed bark of birch and dry leaves of common ash, pour 1 liter of cold water, bring to a boil, cook in a sealed container over low heat for 5 minutes, insist, wrapped, 10 minutes, strain. In the morning on an empty stomach, drink a glass of broth, the rest of the drink a little bit in small sips during the day.
Collection 2. Pour 1 tablespoon of crushed kidneys 1.5 cups of boiling water, cook in a sealed container in a boiling water bath for 5 minutes, insist in the oven for 3 hours and, without filtering, drink the entire infusion in the first and early second half of the day with atherosclerosis.
Warty birch in the collections of medicinal plants
Collection number 42
It is used for baldness. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection number 53
It is used for menstrual irregularities. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection number 54
It is used for dysmenorrhea. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection number 138
It is used for hypertension. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection number 140
It is used for atherosclerosis. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Gathering No. 148
It is used for toxicosis during pregnancy. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection number 150
It is used for circulatory failure. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection number 184
It is used for toxicosis during pregnancy. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Gathering No. 185
It is used for kidney stones. According to the method of preparation and use - infusion.
Collection 1. In the morning on an empty stomach and in the evening, drink 1 glass of infusion of birch buds or leaves, prepared in a ratio of 1:10, with 2 teaspoons of apple cider vinegar and 2 teaspoons of natural honey. Additionally, you should lubricate the veins from the bottom up with apple cider vinegar in the morning and evening. Treatment achieves the fastest result if sweets are excluded from writing.
Rub into the scalp a mixture of birch sap, alcohol and a decoction of burdock root.
When sinusitis the skin over the sore spot, it is useful to rub with gruel or garlic juice, then rub the mixture of powder from birch charcoal with juice of fresh burdock root for 20-30 minutes. Procedures should be carried out 2-3 times a day until complete cure.
Collection 1. Pour 10 handfuls of birch leaves with 5 l of boiling water, insist in a tightly sealed container for 15 minutes, heat over low heat for 5 minutes, cool to 30 ° C and pour the decoction with leaves into the prepared bath. The duration of the bath is 15 minutes. Baths take 2-3 times a week.
Collection 1. Pour 1 tablespoon of high-quality tea 3 liters of hot birch sap, insist in a tightly sealed container for 10 minutes, strain through a multi-layer cheesecloth, cool. Rinse “Kombucha” with a little warm birch sap, place in a wide-necked jar and pour cool infusion of tea in birch sap. Insist in a dark place at room temperature for 7-8 days, covering the jar with dust with gauze. The infusion before use must be carefully filtered through a multilayer gauze. Fused and filtered, it is stored in bottles for a long time, acquiring a fragrant odor, sweet and sour taste. It also helps with atherosclerosis. To once again prepare such a drink, the “mushroom” should again be washed with warm birch sap and pour tea and birch infusion.
Headache, migraine, insomnia
Collection 1. Pour 20 g of dry crushed birch buds 1/2 cup 70% alcohol, insist in a dark place for 3 weeks, periodically shaking the contents, strain, squeeze the residue. Take 20-30 drops per 1 tablespoon of water 3 times a day for 15-20 minutes before eating.
Collection 1. To use birch charcoal powder 1 teaspoon 2 times a day 20-30 minutes before meals, washed down with water.
Collection 1. Pour 1 teaspoon of birch buds 1/2 cup boiling water, insist on a boiling water bath in a tightly sealed container for 15 minutes, cool at room temperature for 45 minutes, strain. Take the infusion in three divided doses throughout the day.
Collection 2. A decoction of birch buds take 1 tablespoon 4 times a day 30 minutes before meals with dysentery and stool disorder in children.
Collection 3. Pour 2 tablespoons of birch buds 1 liter of water, cook over low heat for 20 minutes, insist. Take sweetened 1 glass in the morning on an empty stomach and an hour after eating. The course is 7-10 days for pain in the stomach.
Collection 4. A mixture of birch sap and the juice of young leaves of plantain large in a ratio of 2: 1 has a beneficial therapeutic effect in case of stomach ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastritis, colitis.
Gallstone disease, kidney disease, articular rheumatism
Collection 1. Pour 2 tablespoons of chopped birch leaves with 2 cups boiling water, insist in a tightly sealed container in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes, cool at room temperature for 10 minutes, strain, add bicarbonate soda on the tip of the knife. Take 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day. The same broth can wash skin rashes, tumors, various skin irritations.
Collection 2. Drink 2 cups of birch sap per day.
Collection 3. Grind a piece of birch bark about 10x10 cm in size and pour 1 liter of boiling water, boil over low heat until a glass of liquid remains. Cool the broth at room temperature, strain and take 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day for 15-20 minutes before eating with stones in the liver.
Collection 1. Pour 1 tablespoon of birch buds with 1 cup boiling water and leave for one hour in a tightly closed container in a warm place. Take 1 time per day for 2 weeks. Its maximum elimination begins after 1.5-2 hours after taking the infusion. The diuretic effect will increase if you add baking soda on the tip of a knife or 2 teaspoons of honey to a glass of infusion. Drink 3-5 glasses of birch sap per day (especially recommended in the postoperative period).
Collection 2. Pour 2 tablespoons of chopped birch leaves with 2 cups boiling water, insist in a tightly sealed container in a boiling water bath for 30 minutes, cool at room temperature for 10 minutes, strain, add bicarbonate soda on the tip of a knife. Take 1/2 cup 2-3 times a day.
Collection 1. Drink 2-4 cups of birch sap per day.
Collection 1. Mix 2 tablespoons of birch buds with 50 g of unsalted butter. Put on fire, bring to a boil, but do not boil. Simmer on low heat or in the oven for 1 hour. Remove from heat and, when cool, but still warm, strain. Squeeze out, discard the kidneys. Add 200 g of honey and mix well. Take this mixture 1 tablespoon 4 times a day.
Collection 2.Take 20 g of young birch leaves, pour 1 cup boiling water, leave for 1 hour, strain. Boil 1 tablespoon of anise seeds and 1 teaspoon of honey in 1/2 cup infusion of birch leaves. Drink 5 tablespoons of the broth per day.
Collection 1. Take in equal proportions birch leaves and dioica nettle leaves. Brew 2 tablespoons of chopped picking in 1.5 cups of boiling water, insist in a tightly closed container in a warm place for 1 hour, strain, add 1/3 cup fresh beet juice. Drink during the day in 3-4 doses 20 minutes before meals. The course of treatment is 8 weeks.
Collection 1. Drink 3 times a day for 1 cup of birch sap with 1 tablespoon of honey.
Collection 2. Pour 1 teaspoon of birch buds 1/2 cup boiling water, insist on a boiling water bath in a tightly sealed container for 15 minutes, cool at room temperature for 45 minutes, strain. Divide the infusion into 3 parts and drink the entire portion per day in 3 divided doses.
Collection 3. Pour 2 tablespoons of young (with a penny coin) birch leaves with 1 cup boiling water. Boil over low heat to half the volume. When cool, strain. Take one dessert spoon 3 times a day an hour before meals. The course of treatment is 3 months. Good for small stones. There will be pains, contractions, colic, nausea. Need to endure. All the stones will come out.
Urinary incontinence in children
Collection 1. Pour 1 tablespoon of chopped kidneys 1.5 cups boiling water, cook in a sealed container over low heat for 5 minutes. Insist, wrapped, 1 hour, strain, squeeze the remainder. Take 1 glass 1-2 times a day 20 minutes before meals. The course of treatment is 2-3 weeks.
Collection 2. In the evening, put in a thermos 1 tablespoon of birch buds and pour 1 cup of boiling water. In the morning, strain, divide into 4 doses and take 1 hour before meals with enuresis.
Collection 1. Pour 1 tablespoon of fresh birch leaves with 1 glass of cold water, leave for 8 hours, then strain. It helps in the form of lotions.
Collection 1. Fill a glass jar for 2/3 of the volume with stamen (larger in size) birch earrings, pour vodka to the top, close and insist for 14 days. Do not filter. Take from 20 drops to 1 teaspoon 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals. When using this tincture, the pain in the heart subsides, shortness of breath disappears, and cheerfulness appears.
Collection 1. Birch buds brew like tea and drink during the day in a warm form with a mild cold.
Collection 2. Drink 1 glass of birch sap 3-4 times a day before meals.
Collection 3. In an old herbalist, there is a recipe for making medicinal birch vodka, which helps to relieve colds: “Take a half-pound of young birch leaves from a half-pound of strong and best wine when it has blossomed, it is better in May. Take these leaves from the ends of the branches, but from the trunk is not necessary. You can take birch buds, tokmo is no longer half a pound, but a whole pound. Insist in a lukewarm place for 3 days, strain through the cloth, squeeze these leaves or buds and again into this light infusion add another half pound of fresh birch leaf or buds. And so on up to three times. The rest of the time let stand 10 days and interfere with the paddle in the morning and evening. Pour into the bottle through the canvas. This vodka has an action for colds and fever, from a cut in the stomach. Heals wounds and all sorts of other injuries. And to drink this vodka in the morning on a skinny heart and at dinner, one glass each ”(1 pound corresponds to 409.5 g).
If aches in the body are felt during a cold, then at night you should rub with alcohol infusion of birch buds - this will reduce pain, will cause severe sweating. You can also drink tea from birch buds at the same time. After rubbing, the patient needs to lie under the covers in order to sweat properly.
Lie down on the bed, spread the birch leaves in a thick layer on the sick parts of the body, cover yourself with a warm blanket and take a warm sweaty drink.
Bowel and Gastric Cancer Prevention
Collection 1. 1st stage. Pour 1 cup of crushed birch buds of 0.5 l of cognac (you can use vodka in the same proportions) and leave for about a month in a dark place at room temperature, periodically shaking the contents. Then strain, wring out. 2nd stage. Pass 5 kg of blue onion through the juicer, add 0.5 l of tincture of birch buds on cognac to the juice, 5 g of mummy, 25 g of birch mushroom powder - chaga. Shake the mixture thoroughly and insist 3 days in a cool dark place, periodically shaking the contents. Take 1 tablespoon 3 times a day 20 minutes before meals. Shake well before use. The course of treatment is 3 months, then you need to take a two-week break and continue if necessary.
Collection 2. Mix 50 g of powdered tansy flowers and 20 g of sea buckthorn oil, poured 0.5 l of infusion of birch buds. Let stand for 2 weeks in a dark place at room temperature, periodically shaking the contents, strain, squeeze the rest. Mix the drained tincture with the squeezed mixture and insist for another 3 days, then add 50 g of birch tar. Take 25 drops 3 times a day half an hour before meals. Shake well before use. The course is 6 weeks, then a two-week break.
Collection 1. Take 800 g of unsalted butter and birch buds. Put butter (1-2 cm thick) in a glass, clay or enameled dish, with a layer of birch buds of the same thickness on top and so on, alternating 3-4 layers. Close the pan tightly with a lid, cover the gap with dough, then put in a warm place, preferably in a non-hot oven or oven, for a day. After a day, slightly cooling, strain and squeeze through cheesecloth. Add 5-10 g of camphor to the resulting mass and mix everything thoroughly. Rub the ointment into the joints once a day before bedtime.
Collection 1. Mix 1 teaspoon of sour cream or yogurt with 2 tablespoons of birch sap and 1 teaspoon of honey. Apply the mask on the skin for 10-15 minutes, then rinse with cool boiled water. In the morning, before washing, wipe your face with a cotton swab dipped in vegetable oil.
Collection 1. Take 1 part of honey and 2 parts of powder from birch buds, mix until a thick homogeneous mass is formed. If honey is liquid, the amount of powder can be increased. The resulting "cakes" can be applied under a bandage, changing every 3-4 hours.
Collection 1. Pour 5-10 drops of birch tar into 1 cup of warm milk and stir. Take 1/3 cup 3 times a day.
Collection 2. Pour 20 g of dry crushed birch buds with 100 ml of 70 percent alcohol or vodka, insist in a dark place for 3 weeks, periodically shaking the contents, strain, squeeze the residue. Take 20-30 drops per 1 tablespoon of water 3 times a day for 15-20 minutes before eating.
Collection 1. Preparation of vitamin infusion. 100 g of fresh leaves are poured with cold boiled water, insist 2 hours. It is used as a good anti-zingotic agent.
Eczema of the hands
Prepare a decoction of birch twigs with leaves, cool slightly (it should be very hot, as much as you can tolerate) and, without taking out the twigs, lower your hands in this decoction for 20-30 minutes. After the procedure, do not wipe your hands - let them dry. Conduct treatment 2-3 times a day, preferably at night. Moreover, the same broth can be used repeatedly. In other fluids, it is advisable to wet your hands as little as possible during treatment.
Warty Birch Herbal Medicine
Warty birch - (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.). Birch is a deciduous tree of the birch family, up to 25 m high with white bark. The trunk is straight, the branches are usually drooping. The leaves are oval or ovoid, sharp. The white birch is not much different from the birch, hanging, moreover, it often forms hybrid forms with it with signs of both species. The birch is drooping, or warty, larger than the fluffy birch and, as a rule, prefers dry places. Its branches hang downward and at a young age are dotted with warty glands that form resin. The leaves are also larger. The fluffy birch, on the contrary, has young hairy branches, and it grows in moist forests and swamps. Both species are used in medicine. Birch grows in most of the country. The most abundant in Western and Central Siberia, as well as in the middle lane of the European part of the country. In medicine, they use buds, leaves, bark, wood, birch sap. Birch buds are harvested in early spring, at the beginning of swelling. When dried, they should be dark brown in color, with a pleasant smell, bitter taste and shiny surface.
Young leaves are torn off in spring (May-June), when they have not yet become coarser. Birch bark (corked outer layer of birch bark) is harvested mainly from growing trees, felled trees and from trees after felling.
Birch sap is obtained in early spring, before the leaves bloom. The infusion and decoction of the birch buds are used as a diuretic and choleretic agent, as well as external for cuts and abscesses. To treat acute and chronic eczema, a hot bath is made from birch buds.
Leaves are used as a diuretic. From birch bark, by dry distillation, tar is obtained, which is part of Vishnevsky ointments (a diluent) and Wilkinson (against scabies, scaly lichen and lice).
Hanging birch: description, planting and care, medicinal properties
In the world there are about 120 species of birch. Each has its own history of origin. But for medicine and other purposes, the 3 most common types are used: Warted or drooping birch - Betula pendula Roth, Fluffy or white birch - Betula pubescens Ehrh, Flat-birch - Betula platyphylla Sukacz.
The tree reaches a height of 10 m to 25 m. The crown is sparse, resembles the shape of a pyramid, the branches gradually descend to the bottom. Peeling of white smooth bark is noticed. Old trees at the base of the trunk have a bark of black and gray color with large cracks.
Young shoots are usually glossy and glabrous, with a reddish hue. They have a thick coating with resinous glands. The leaves differ in a triangular-diamond shape with denticles, have long petioles and a wedge-shaped base. These are the features that the birch has, the description of other varieties is similar with this species.
Flowering is a unisex brush in the form of long yellow earrings, which reach 6-10 cm. Earrings, in turn, are collected in small crowns of 2-3 pieces. This species is called stamen brush. On the shortened side branches there are pistil greenish earrings with a cylindrical shape, which are directed upwards. The flowering process can be observed in the same period when the leaves bloom. Usually this falls in April-May. By September, fruits appear in the form of winged nuts.
Places of growth
Warty birch covers the territory of Europe and North America to the Maritime Alps, the Balkan Mountains and Calabria. In Asia, the range is partially distributed in Northern Siberia, Kazakhstan, the mountains of Altai, the Caucasus and the Tien Shan. On the eastern side it covers the territory of Altai, Baikal, the Lena and Aldan river basins. Most often birch can be found in mixed forests. And also in some broad-leaved forests, on fire, clearings, in open woodlands and forest-steppe zone. Often, birch trees form stands that are clean and mixed with other types of plants in the steppe zone along river valleys.
Fluffy birch is common in northern countries and southwestern Greenland.. This kind of plant can be found in marshy areas and on peatlands.
Each species of birch is cultivated in parks and squares in different climatic conditions.
Betula pendula contains components that people eat after processing. The main edible elements:
- Birch bast - implies the inner layer of the bark. It is a source of starch. Bast can be dried and boiled. Then it is easy to grind into powder and add to food. It is considered a demanded component as a thickener for soup, additives for baking flour. Due to the content of essential oils suitable for making tea.
- Juice - has a sweet taste. It is allowed to take the drink raw and after cooking. They get the product in early spring, when the leaves on the tree have not yet blossomed. To do this, make holes in the birch trunk. If juice production falls on a sunny day, followed by frost, you can get a large amount of valuable drink. To obtain sugar syrup, you can boil birch sap to a thick consistency. From juice, you can brew beer according to an old recipe.
Attention! Extracting birch sap from a tree causes harm, which slows down the growth rate. One adult tree can optimally give 4-7 liters per day. If you get a larger volume, the tree may die. After collecting the juice, the holes must be closed up.
- Young leaves of birch are eaten both fresh and cooked. Delicious and healthy tea is brewed on birch leaves.
Some components in the composition of birch can have a beneficial effect on the human body. Namely:
- the bark has a laxative and diuretic effect.
- bast is used to treat intermittent fever, has a bitter taste and astringent structure.
- bast oil is used to treat eczema and psoriasis.
- birch buds contain up to 5% of essential oil and tar, have a calming, expectorant, diuretic and choleretic properties.
- resinous substances of the acid reaction of young shoots and leaves in combination with alkaline elements act as a tonic laxative.
- Due to the essential oil, saponins, ascorbic acid and resinous substances in the composition of the leaves, they are used as a diuretic and to cleanse cholesterol.
- volatile in the leaves have a bactericidal effect.
- infusions based on birch leaves help get rid of dropsy, rheumatism and gout, dissolve kidney stones,
- a decoction of birch leaves and bark is used to treat a skin rash.
- spring birch sap is famous for diuretic properties.
- shredded and boiled birch wood will help get rid of skin irritation.
- yellow fungal growths that arise in the cracks of a tree trunk are the raw material for creating sticks with the aim of cauterizing the skin in acupuncture - moxa,
- parasitic birch fungus chaga is used in official and traditional medicine.
Attention! Phytoncides in the composition of birch leaves are able to kill pathogens within 3 hours.
A wide range of applications of birch
The hanging birch is famous for its ability to improve the soil and create favorable conditions for the growth of other plants due to the mycorrhizal function. Birch easily populates the former field, bare soil and a plot of land after a fire. It grows for a short time and does not tolerate the shadow.
Other trees may gradually supplant birch trees. Leaves also act as fertilizers, which contribute to the acceleration of composting. The root system is able to disinfect the earth.
Birch is used for landscaping settlements. The tree is wind-resistant, unable to tolerate only the salty sea wind. Due to the strong wind, a crown of a specific shape is formed.
The tree is considered decorative due to openwork crown, white bark and bright yellow leaves in the autumn. Used as a tapeworm in the alleys.
Birch is used as a building material. After all, birch bark is waterproof, durable and resinous. It makes a high-quality roofing and material for waterproofing. It is also used for sheathing canoes and wooden boats. Birch bark takes the desired shape and becomes pliable after heating over a fire. Branches of a tree are used for the manufacture of a reed roof.
Important! Birch is easy to machine, rotting is unstable.Stored better when immersed in water.
Scopes of birch:
- used as plywood raw materials for the manufacture of furniture, ski toys and other small items,
- a birch cap is a tumor with randomly curled lines of layers, it is considered a valuable ornamental material due to its solid structure and a beautiful view of the cut,
- birch firewood is considered one of the best due to the large heat transfer,
- wood is the basis for charcoal, activated carbon, acetic acid, methyl alcohol, paper and turpentine,
- birch bark is used in the manufacture of dishes,
- dry distillation of wood and bark results in tar, it is used in perfumery and medicine, and also acts as one of the components in insect repellent and shoe polish,
- birch sap - the basis for the manufacture of some types of glue,
- for the manufacture of ropes, fibers of the inner part of the forehead are used,
- for the manufacture of bath brooms and wickerwork using flexible branches,
- paint can be extracted from individual elements of a tree: yellow - from leaves, black - from soot of firewood, brown - from bast,
- high quality charcoal for drawing is obtained from the bark.
Birch attracts various wild animals. More than 200 species of insects can live on a tree.
Landing and care
A young birch seedling is best planted in autumn and spring. Autumn planting of young trees is very popular. Old birch trees may not take root in a new place or often get sick even with proper care. And the reason for this is the affected roots during transplantation. When spring planting, you need to take into account the age of the seedling. It should not exceed 3 years. It must be ensured that the earthen lump from the root system is not showered.
If you need to transplant a birch at the age of 7 years or more, for this it is better to choose a winter period. It is necessary to place the frozen earthen lump in the dug hole entirely without damage. So there will be a chance that the tree will take root.
In the spring and autumn, you can sow seeds. Small winged nuts are showered from a tree and carried by the wind to any distance in the natural environment.
Birch does not require special care. As fertilizer, you can do by adding sheet earth to the pit near the tree. Special attention should be paid to watering the seedling. When choosing a landing site, it should be borne in mind that proximity to groundwater is best avoided. Roots can lock and rot. The birch also does not like heat. Light partial shade is an ideal place for good growth and development of birch.
Features of disembarkation and care:
- Birch is planted on the principle of most fruit trees.
- A pit needs to be dug up so large that the roots fit into it with ease.
- It is not recommended to deepen the root neck to avoid drying of the tree.
- The distance between the pits should be at least 4 m so as not to create crowded trees.
- Watering is carried out on the roots.
- After planting the seedlings with dry earth and humus, a near-stem circle is poured to retain moisture in the ground.
- Watering the first time you need often and little by little.
In the absence of a large plot of land for planting a large birch among summer residents, the dwarf tree is popular. Care and disembarkation is carried out similarly.
Description and Features
Due to its good adaptability in any conditions, the tree is found in different parts of Europe and Asia, but most often it can be found in the temperate climatic zone. The birch is dangling, or warty, as it is also called - a tall tree, up to 30 meters high, a tree whose branches resemble a streaming green waterfall that looks especially impressive against the background of snow-white bark. But the white color of the bark becomes darker over the years, especially from below, cracks appear on it. And in autumn, the tree lights up with bright yellow lights, its foliage resembles a golden sheaf of harvested wheat, and this colorful decoration is preserved until the cold comes.
The bark of young birch trees is darkish, and begins to turn white only by the age of eight, therefore they are sometimes confused with a young alder. The tree got its name because of the numerous resinous glands, warts and drooping branches.
The diameter of the trunk in old trees reaches 80 centimeters. The roots are large, but not deep, therefore, trees often turn out to be turned upside down by a hurricane wind.
Hanging birch is a photophilous tree, so the proximity with tall old trees affects it not in the best way. In natural conditions, it can be found only in bright areas - forest glades and edges. Its average age is 120 years, due to the unusual color of the bark and leaves, it is considered a decorative tree.
Unusual beauty - hanging birch purpurea
But the birch hanging purpurea is considered to be unique in its beauty and shape of the crown, looking at its chic decoration in spring or summer, one wants to exclaim: “How wonderful your divas are, nature!”
Having planted such a beauty on your site, you will constantly amaze the guests of your garden, and will cause their admiration for its bright purple foliage. The tree grows up to 10 meters in height, and its crown is approximately - up to 4 meters.
Openwork leaves look quite original - they change color from dark red in spring to brown-red in autumn, and when combined with a rhombic shape, they look simply amazing.
Like all birch trees, it grows slowly, loves light, is frost-resistant and does not tolerate the proximity to groundwater.
Due to its unpretentiousness and easy maintenance, as well as its compact size, the hanging birch purpurea is popular among beginners and owners of small land plots.
What should be the planting and care of birch
You can dig a young sapling of ordinary birch in the forest, and when you visit the nursery, you will certainly find varieties of weeping birch that match your abilities and desire.
The most popular autumn planting of young trees. Old - worse take root in a new place, get sick, even if the care for them is organized correctly. In adult trees, when transplanting, roots often suffer, which affects the seedling not in the best way.
When choosing a spring planting, care must be taken to ensure that the seedling is no more than three years old and that an earthen lump does not crumble from its root.
If there is a need to transplant a birch, which is about 7 years old, the most suitable time for this is winter. Try to make sure that you put the frozen earthen lump in the dug hole, otherwise the tree will not take root.
Seeds are sown in spring and autumn. Under natural conditions, small winged nuts fall from trees and are transported by the wind over long distances.
The tree is undemanding to the conditions, and he does not need special care. Care of seedlings consists in watering, and instead of fertilizer, you can add to the pit of leafy soil. When choosing a place, keep in mind that proximity to groundwater will not lead to anything good, the roots will constantly lock and rot. He does not like birch and intense heat, the best place for her is light partial shade. In it, the tree grows and develops well.
They plant birch in the same way as most fruit trees. The pit should be the size so that the roots fit into it without difficulty. The root neck cannot be deepened so that the tree does not dry out. If birches sit in a row, pit no closer than four meters from each other so that the plants are not cramped.
When watering, water needs to be poured to the roots, the trunk circle after planting is covered with mulch (dry earth, humus or peat) in order to retain moisture in the ground. At first, the trees need moisture, but often and a little bit is watered to avoid the appearance of root rot.
Many gardeners believe that weeping birch with its powerful root system robs neighboring plants of water and nutrients, as a result of which they suffer. It is unnecessary to be afraid of it, proper watering and regular top dressing will help to avoid such problems.
In nature, these trees are most often found in places where there are a lot of sandy loam and light loam.
Hanging birch is a tall tree, so owners of small summer cottages often doubt its planting. A good option for them is to plant a dwarf birch, which is smaller than a weeping birch, but is very similar to it.
The most comfortable conditions for dwarf birch are tundra conditions, here it is the most common plant.
Description and features.
Despite the similarity with the ordinary birch, this type of birch has significant differences. In such birches, the foliage is round, it is smaller, and their trunk is much lower than in ordinary birches. This is a shrub covered with numerous branches, not more than one meter high and a meter and a half crown. The description of the tree would not be complete if we did not pay attention to the color of the leaves. The leaves above are dark green, the bottom is lighter.
Sometimes birch growth is so small that it appears to be lying on a lichen.
The tree is very winter-hardy, well adapted to the cold conditions of the tundra and forest-tundra, but grows slowly, most often found in nature on rocky slopes and in the tundra.
Although its resistance to wind is considered high, the dwarf birch lives less than the birch.
Decorative dwarf trees are widely used by landscape designers in the design of the area around houses, green compositions and suburban areas. Their care is simple, they are not capricious, their crown is compact, so often it is not necessary to cut the shrub. The popularity of dwarf birch is growing, so many are interested in the features of its planting and care.
Proper fit and care.
Garden soil, peat, humus and sand are poured into a hole, the size of which must correspond to the size of the root system. From spring to autumn, birch is fed, it is better to use complex fertilizers or nitrogen-containing for this. In autumn it is better to feed with a nitroammophos.
Saplings love moisture, so the first days you need to water them well. If the weather is hot, increase the volume of water.
Above the roots, the earth should often be loosened in order to ensure free access of oxygen and to prevent clogging of the soil. If you notice that the earrings are ripe, you need to collect the seeds and sow them at the end of autumn.
Dwarf weeping birch.
Given the desire of owners of small land plots to admire the beauty of birches, a variety was developed - an attractive dwarf weeping birch. Here are its features:
- slow growth
- a height of not more than six meters and branches hanging to the ground,
- it is suitable for growing in small areas of land,
- the proximity to fruit trees will negatively affect their growth and development.
Like other types of birch, it can be grown from seeds. Here is the action algorithm:
- In late autumn, when the earrings become brown, they collect seeds. Even under good storage conditions (in a glass jar in a cold, dry room), their similarity is not always pleasing.
- In the first spring days they are sown in a not hot hotbed. Sprinkle on top with earth and dry straw.
- Water carefully, with a thin stream.
- With the advent of sprouts, a ball of straw is removed.
- A box with shoots is carried away into the shade.
- The grown seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place.
If you are a lover of experiments and want to grow a decorative weeping birch or other forms in your garden, feel free to plant its cuttings in an ordinary tree. You should know and remember:
- The crown of the new tree is directly related to the place of grafting of the cuttings.
- Grafted trees will be lower than others, even with good care, but for small plots this is what you need.
- The beautiful birch Yungi, with branches hanging by a waterfall, grows as a result of grafting on an ordinary tree.
Those who believe that weeping birch is just a decorative tree are mistaken. All its parts have healing properties; birch tar and birch sap are especially useful. And to talk about the fact that you can’t do without birch brooms in a bathhouse, while lighting a stove without a birch broom, you can very, very long.
The birch family is Betulaceae.
L is a deciduous tree up to 20 m high with a white smooth bark. In old trees, the bark in the lower part of the trunk is black-gray, fissured. Young shoots are red-brown, covered with warts. The leaves are rhombic, triangular-ovate or ovate, with a tip extended and a wedge-shaped base, double-toothed along the edge. The flowers are dioecious, collected in inflorescences - catkins. The fruit is a winged nutlet with 2 webbed wings.
Drooping birch "Betula pendula Roth.": Blossoms in May, fruits ripen in August - September.
Distributed throughout the forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part of Russia and Western Siberia. Along with hanging birch, other types of birch are also used to obtain medicinal raw materials: fluffy, flat-leaved birch, Manchu birch and some other species.
For medical purposes, they use kidneys, leaves, birch sap and tar and coal obtained from wood. The kidneys contain up to 6% of essential oil, which consists of betulen and betulenol, betulenic acid and sesquiterpenes. Betuloretin and ascorbic acids, saponins, essential oil, hyperoside and tannins were found in the leaves.
Birch buds (infusion and decoction) are used as a disinfectant and expectorant for bronchitis and tracheitis, as a diuretic for the treatment of edema of cardiac origin (you can not use them with insufficient kidney function), as choleretic in diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The kidneys are used to prepare hygienic baths to accelerate the healing of small wounds, burns, diaper rash and pressure sores. Use them for scurvy and hypovitaminosis.
Tar and antimicrobial and antifungal properties are obtained from wood and bark. Tar is a part of ointments of Vishnevsky, Wilkinson, Konkov, sulfur-tar-naphthalan and others, widely used in medicine. The preparation of purified birch coal - carbolene - is used as an adsorbent for flatulence, colic in the stomach, increased acidity of gastric juice, and especially for poisoning by poisons and bacterial toxins.
In folk medicine, fresh birch leaves are widely used. Their infusion is used as a diaphoretic and diuretic. Fresh birch leaves are brewed with boiling water and compresses for rheumatism and polyarthritis. Infusions and decoctions of birch leaves and buds contribute to hair growth.
Widely used as a general strengthening agent was birch sap, including canned. It is rich in vitamins, mineral salts, various trace elements, contains malic acid, sugars, tannins, aromatic and other substances.
To prepare a decoction, 10 g of the kidneys are filled with a glass of water and boiled for 15 minutes. Drink a tablespoon 3 times a day.
The buds are harvested in winter and early spring at the beginning of swelling along with branches. The branches are bundled and dried in the open air or in dryers at a temperature of 25-30 ℃. After drying, the kidneys are threshed.
- 1. Description
- 2. Active substances and medicinal properties
- 3. Used plant parts
- 4. Indications for use
- 5. Methods of use
- 6. Precautions
Drooping birch is a large deciduous tree, 25 meters high. The young plant has a brown trunk. As it grows older, the bark turns white, later becoming dirty white due to black cracks. Hanging branches form a weeping crown. Annual shoots are covered with glands - “warts”. Small leaves sit on petioles, have a triangular-ovoid shape, a pointed tip and serrated edges.
In spring, along with the blooming of leaves, flowers appear - female and male earrings. Fruits are tied at the end of summer, are nuts collected in fruit fertility with wings.
Used plant parts
Warty birch leaves are collected in May – June only in dry weather.Dry in the open air under a canopy, spreading out a layer of 3-5 cm. To keep the drying uniform, the leaves are mixed from time to time.
The kidneys must be collected in time swollen, but not opened. In January – March, twigs can be cut, bundled and hung to dry in a well-ventilated area. It is permissible to use a dryer at a temperature not exceeding + 30 ° C.
Raw materials are recommended to be stored in paper bags or glass containers for no more than two years.
Indications for use
Preparations of Birch hanging are used for coronary disease to relieve edema. They have a positive effect on inflammation of the kidneys, bladder, and bile ducts. Antiseptic and expectorant properties have been used in the treatment of respiratory diseases. External use of the kidneys and leaves promotes wound healing, helps with myositis and arthritis.
Swelling- 5 g of kidneys pour 0.5 l. boiling water, stand on low heat for 15 minutes. Strain. Drink 2-3 tablespoons before meals. Or pour kidneys with boiling water at a rate of 1 to 10. Insist for an hour. Strain. Take 2 tablespoons 3 times a day
Bladder disease - A tablespoon of leaves pour 250 g of boiling water. Insist half an hour, strain. Drink 100 g twice a day.
Bronchitis, tracheitis, laryngitis - 10 g of kidneys pour 200 ml. hot water, boil for 30 minutes. Cool, strain, pour into a glass container. Take 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day.
Atherosclerosis, kidney disease - 6-8 g of crushed leaves pour half a liter of boiling water, simmer for 20 minutes. Strain, drink for the day.
Vomiting- pour a tablespoon of kidneys 200 ml. boiling water, leave for 30 minutes, strain. Take every hour for 50 g.
Cholecystitis, gallstone disease - 1 tsp kidneys pour 200 ml. boiling water. Insist on a water bath for 15 minutes, cool, strain. Take 70 ml. 3 times a day before meals.
Stomatitis, gum disease - 10 g of dry kidneys pour a glass of hot water. Boil for a quarter of an hour, strain, add boiled water to 200 ml. Rinse your mouth several times a day.
Myositis, arthritis, rheumatism - pour a glass of kidneys 0.5 l. vodka. Insist 1.5 weeks. Rub or make compresses on sore spots. The same tincture can wipe wounds and pressure sores.
Preparations of Birch pendulum are contraindicated in people suffering from renal failure. In chronic glomerulonephritis, internal use of decoctions and infusions only from leaves is possible. Women at any stage of pregnancy should consult a doctor before treatment. It is also necessary to consider the risk of individual intolerance.
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