Perilla (Perilla). An annual plant of the Labrum family.
Plant height 40-60 cm. The leaves are dark red.
Propagated by seeds. In April, after 2-3 days of soaking, the seeds are sown in boxes or greenhouse soil. Shoots dive into pots or cubes with a diameter of 7 cm for 3-4 plants and pinch the tops twice. In the open ground planted in early June. Distances at landing 20-30 cm.
Perilla grows well in open sunny places with loose nutrient soil. It lends itself well to haircut. Refers to plants of a short day.
They are used for planting on flowerbeds and discounts, as a large-border plant, in groups and single plantings. Especially good in borders around the cannes.
Pearl of many years (Perilla frutescens) Annual plant. Homeland - East Asia.
The Nanking railing is common in culture - a plant 40-70 cm high. The leaves are large, wrinkled, sometimes with a fringed carved edge, dark purple, almost black.
Propagated by seeds. Seedlings must be nipped twice. Photophilous, undemanding to soils.
Handrail is used in solitary landings and in small groups. Very effective in high sheared borders.
Source: Florist Training Book. A.A. Chuvikova, S.P. Potapov, A.A. Koval, T.G. Chernykh. M .: Kolos, 1980
How to grow flowers. Storozhenko L.N., M., "Enlightenment", 1978
Perilla shrubby (Perilla frutescens) Is a perennial, annual, fragrant herbaceous plant in the culture from the family Lamiaceae, 50-100 cm high with an erect, tetrahedral, densely branched stem. The leaves are large, up to 12 cm long, ovate, serrated, serrated, often wrinkled, wavy along the edge, from green to purple-red, almost purple or black in color. The flowers are small, inconspicuous, white in narrow apical brushes, bloom in July-September, usually do not form in conditions of central Russia. Fruits - prefabricated nuts, ripen in September. Homeland: East Asia, Japan.
Especially decorative is the Nanking variety (var. Crispa syn. Var. Nankinensis), which is distinguished by dark purple or dark bronze, sometimes dark green leaves with a wavy edge.
Shrub perilla - cultivated and wild food, medicinal, ornamental plant. Fresh, fermented, pickled young greens of green leafy forms (salads, like spinach), red-leafed forms (food coloring of canned food, marinades), fried, pickled seeds (side dish for meat, appetizer) are consumed.
For therapeutic purposes, leaves are used (for colds, coughs, abdominal pains, food poisoning), stems (for morning sickness).
The railing is vegetable, or shrubby (Perilla frutescens), the only species that belongs to the family Lamiaceae (Lamiaceae), the popular name is Japanese parsley. Synonyms: Perilla shrubby, or Basil perilla.
Within the species species with curly leaf edges:
- Perilla frutescens var. crispa f. purpurea - with red leaves,
- Perilla frutescens var. crispa f. viridis - with green leaves.
- Nanking Perilla (Perilla frutescens var. Nankinensis), a synonym (Perilla frutescens var. Crispa) is a bushy, fragrant annual with wide ovoid, dark purple leaves with notched edges and white flowers. Nanking Perilla is an annual plant with serrated, ovate, aromatic, often red or purple leaves.
- Mulatto - leaves are purple, curly.
- Dewdrop - a ripening variety, frost-resistant, the growing season is 135-150 days. Height - 120-140 cm, the stem is erect, branching, tetrahedral.
- Oriental doctor - a spicy plant, 40-60 cm, strongly branched. The leaves are large, double-toothed. Contains minerals calcium, iron, potassium and essential oils. Carotene contains more carrots. Teas and decoctions are prepared from the leaves.
- Akazhiso Red - a variety 60-100 cm high, highly branched. The leaves are red-burgundy, broad-ovate, with a serrated edge. The taste is delicate, with a soft lemon-anise aroma and a light pepper flavor. The variety is used for pickles and pickles, "Japanese parsley" will give a beautiful pink color and a pleasant aroma.
- Akashiso is a variety of railing with purple leaves.
Heterosis varieties are hybrids of two species obtained by multiple crosses. Hybrids cannot be propagated from their own seeds.
The species is native to Asia, ranging from India through China to Japan. Species and botanical varieties are plants with operational properties. Oil is made from vegetable railing. Height, 45 and 60 cm. Flowering time, begins to bloom in July, flowering lasts quite a long time. If a species is grown, 2 inflorescences should be left for seeds, cut off the rest, the flowers do not have decorative significance. Flower colorwhite or slightly pink.
A placeVegetable railing is grown in a sunny place, especially hybrids with colored leaves. The view tolerates partial shade, it will be higher and elongated shoots will be visible.
Vegetable perilla is grown in open ground on drained soils that hold moisture well. The acidity of the soil, from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline pH. The plant will be more magnificent if fed, without excessive nitrogen fertilizer, there will be leaves, flowering is much weaker. When growing forms with colored leaves, it is recommended to use fertilizers with a high amount of potassium; it helps to get the most colored leaves. Fertilizers used for flowering plants or fertilizers for tomatoes are suitable.
Wanting to get a thick hedge, the railing is planted a little thicker than indicated in the instructions on the package, after planting, the tops of the seedlings are plucked. The plant will branch more strongly and will be dense.
Vegetable perilla is suitable for growing in pots. Perilla is a fairly standard substrate for flowers. After 6 weeks, top dressing begins. To get a relatively small plant you need to grow in a sunny place. Despite the drought tolerance of the plant, it loses its compact form. Watering in pots is done when the topsoil is dry. In the pot, a periodic absence of components or a temporary excess may be observed, the lower leaves may turn yellow, it is better to shorten the shoots. The plant will receive a signal that it is necessary to start sleeping buds.
If there is a problem with the purchase of seeds of good hybrids - in August, dig up two bushes and transplant into a pot. Perilla does not tolerate cold, immediately after rooting it is transferred to home conditions. Set in a well-lit place. The perilla during the winter may turn pale due to lack of light. In the spring they cut it, forming a beautiful habit, and cuttings for seedlings are prepared from the residues. When planting in a warm substrate, there should be no problems with rooting. After frost, seedlings are planted in a permanent place in the open ground.
Growing vegetable perilla from seeds, two aspects are important. For germination, the seeds require light, the seeds are slightly pressed into the substrate, the pot is placed in a foil bag. The second aspect is the temperature of moist soil. The temperature is about 20 ° C, lower, the germination will be long and uneven, complicating the subsequent picking.
The surface temperature of the substrate is important when propagating by cuttings. A pot of seeds can be put on the radiator, then problems can occur with cuttings. Be sure to use a rooting agent for herbaceous plants to speed up the process.
Due to oily substances it is a sought-after element as a material for compost. On heavy soils, the railing of the railing penetrates perfectly into the ground, contributing to aeration.
The healing properties cannot be overestimated; perilla is one of the known plants with anti-allergic properties. Relieves discomfort associated with seasonal runny nose, an allergy to fur or ticks, with a feeling of nasal congestion.
The extract of leaves and oil from seeds possesses healing properties, they contain many valuable substances, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and anti-allergic.
The most useful ingredients for health are flavonoids, which have anti-inflammatory properties, well-known antioxidants that neutralize free radicals responsible for the aging of the body. The perilla extract contains anthocyanins that have a positive effect on the circulatory system, alpha-linolenic fatty acid, which exhibits antibacterial and antioxidant activity, luteolin - has anti-inflammatory properties, has a beneficial effect on the nervous system and catechins, slows down the aging process and strengthens the immune system.
In traditional Chinese medicine, railing is used not only as an anti-allergic agent. Leaf extract contains iron, potassium, calcium and vitamins also used for respiratory diseases. In Japan, the use of vegetable railings, better known as siso, was found in the kitchen. Traditionally, the leaves were added to dishes with fish. Due to its detoxifying properties, it eliminates the effects of poisoning by fish toxins. Currently used in Asian cuisine due to the taste and intense aromatic notes. Banana leaves are added to broths, meat dishes and baked vegetables.
The leaves of the railing contain:
- rosmarinic acid (exhibits properties that alleviate the symptoms of food allergies),
- vitamins A and C.
Perilla oil contains:
- high content of unsaturated fatty acids,
Oils are made from railing and used in cosmetics. The oil can be used for any type of skin, dry, oily and problematic, for example, from acne, since the oil has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antiseptic properties, soothes irritation, minor damage to the epidermis, prevents clogging of the sebaceous glands. Due to its properties, the oil increases the production of collagen and elastin, slows down the aging process of the skin, the skin becomes more elastic and smooth. Systematically used oil brightens the skin. A few drops of oil can be added to the bath to moisturize the skin and increase elasticity.
Perilla is suitable in case of hair problems, you do not have to wait for results. The oil is applied to the hair, after several procedures, the hair should become stronger, smoother, with no tendency to break. You can rub oil into the skin of the hair, strengthening the bulbs, prevents the appearance of dandruff.
Perilla seed oil contains two times more omega-3 fatty acids than fish meat.
- With green leaves (Perilla frutescens var. Crispa)
- With red leaves (Perilla frutescens var. Purpurascens)
- It is widely used in Korea (Perilla frutescens var. Frutescens, with purple leaves).
The composition and characteristics of the plant
Perilla is a plant from the family Lamiaceae. It reaches a height of 40-60 cm. The stem weakly branches, has 4 faces. By autumn, small lavender flowers bloom at the top of the plant.
Leaves attract attention with variegated shades. In the center they are saturated green, and at the edges they turn into purple, bright red tones. In shape - solid, rounded with serrated edges, pointed to the end. Externally, the railing resembles nettle.
Perilla comes from China, Japan. Today it is cultivated in many countries with a warm, favorable climate. In different corners of the planet you can hear other names of the railing:
- Vietnamese coriander
- Chinese basil
- wild sesame seeds
In Russia, grass is not particularly common. The peak of its popularity among gardeners in our country came in the 20th century.
The chemical composition of the plant abounds:
- B vitamins, PP,
- omega-6, omega-3 acids,
- essential oils
- organic acids
At the same time, per 100 grams of plant has no more than 1 calorie.
The plant is distinguished by a variety of varieties and species, different in taste and botanical characteristics. Of these, the most common:
- Fragrant red mint with hints of cinnamon and mint. The leaves of red mint have a purple hue, a velvety, pleasant to the touch surface.
- Rosinka is a frost-resistant Russian variety. The plant is characterized by bright red leaves.
- "Akashiso" with a pronounced smell of allspice and burgundy leaves.
- Aoshiso with green leaves, aroma reminiscent of anise and caramel.
- Shrubby, or basilic, railing with oval wavy leaves. The flowering period is in July, this month, bell flowers bloom on the tops.
- Vegetable, or Nanking, a variety most often used in cooking, folk medicine. Especially appreciated for its pleasant taste. Outwardly resembles basil, the aroma is close to a combination of lemon balm, anise and cinnamon.
Perilla is a medicinal plant used in the preparation of food and medicinal products. You should know the disease and features in which its use can harm the body. These include:
- individual intolerance, allergy,
- pregnancy, breastfeeding,
- preparation time for the operation,
- peptic ulcer in the acute stage.
It is important to consume spicy herbs, observing the dosage. Abuse of spice can lead to undesirable side effects - problems with the stomach, kidneys, the occurrence of an allergic reaction.
In traditional medicine and cosmetology
In Ayurveda, perilla is used in the treatment of infectious diseases, digestive tract disorders, poisoning, allergies, skin diseases.
Some folk recipes based on railing:
- The therapeutic effect for colds will have a remedy from a tablespoon of crushed dried leaves, a glass of boiling water. The broth should be covered and let it brew for half an hour. Take in parts 3 times a day.
- The same decoction with the addition of a tablespoon of wormwood will help with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
- With bronchitis, a strong cough, a decoction from a tablespoon of seeds, 6 tablespoons of dried foliage will help. To prepare, pour hot water, boil in a water bath for 15 minutes, leave to infuse for several hours. Take in parts 4–5 times a day.
- Cure diarrhea, nausea will help a decoction of 1 cup boiling water, 1 tablespoon of crushed dry shoots, leaves. Boil for about 10 minutes, let it brew for several hours. Take in parts 3 times a day.
- For external use, perilla essential oil helps relieve inflammation, itching, cure acne, allergic rashes. Ether when used internally will help relieve the symptoms of diabetes, leprosy.
Perilla essential oil is considered a useful supplement in cosmetic products. In homemade recipes for masks and ready-made perilla creams:
- Smoothes wrinkles, rejuvenates the skin.
- It will have a mild anti-inflammatory and antiseptic effect, which will help get rid of acne, acne and comedones.
- Saturates the epidermis with vitamins and minerals, gives the skin a healthy and well-groomed appearance.
The easiest way to use the essential oil is to add 1-2 drops per serving of cream or mask according to skin type. A positive effect on the hair will have homemade masks and a couple of drops of essential oil in the balm:
- the extract will restore the fat and water balance of the scalp, help maintain moisture,
- relieve seborrhea and dandruff, relieve itching and redness,
- will give the curls volume, visually make them thicker.