In this book, young readers will familiarize themselves with the history of the domestication of certain species of animals, learn about the customs and traditions of different peoples associated with the cult of “our smaller brothers”, and will read with interest about the nature, behavior, habits and extraordinary abilities of modern inhabitants of the farmstead. The author acquaints readers with the new discoveries of scientists, on the basis of which modern methods of "designing" highly productive animals have been developed. For a wide range of readers. Chapter from a book on dogs.
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Dog breeds are divided into three main groups - service, hunting and indoor-decorative.
Service dogs - German (East European), Caucasian, Central Asian, South Russian, Scottish Shepherd dogs (collies) and others are used for search, guard, guard, shepherd, sled and other services.
Hunting dogs - West and East Siberian huskies, Karelian-Finnish huskies, hounds, greyhounds, and burrows - are used for commercial and sport hunting.
Room-decorative - poodles, lapdogs, spitz - are kept by amateur dog breeders in the apartments.
All dog breeds were created and are created by man according to his needs. Naturally, some breeds disappear and new ones, more adapted to changing human needs, arise. More recently, a new breed of dog, the Eurasian, was bred in Germany, and in Czechoslovakia a special breed for medical research, the so-called Horak dog.
Service dogs are distinguished by their large growth, strong build and stamina, and are easy to train. In the Far North sled dog breeding is widespread. Dogs carry goods, mail, passengers. A team of 10-12 northeastern sled or Nenets huskies carries sledges with a load of 400-500 kilograms at a speed of about 7-10 kilometers per hour. For a day, a dog team with a load runs off-road for 70-80 kilometers, and 150-200 for a light one.
For several centuries, St. Bernard dogs in the Swiss Alps have been saving people from snow avalanches. They are very hardy, have excellent instinct. St. Bernards sense the people buried in an avalanche under a three-meter thick snow. The key to success is their outstanding ability to navigate the mountains and find their way home during a snowstorm and snowfall, when snow and wind instantly cover all traces. They have one more valuable property: when the weather approaches, they begin to become very worried, and by their behavior it is possible to predict the onset of snowstorm in 40-60 minutes.
Finding a frozen man, two dogs lie on the sides of the unfortunate to warm him, while the rest scooted toward the people and lead them to the traveler found. If dogs find a person covered with an avalanche, they try to open it, release it, and in case of failure, call people for help.
Saint Bernards owe their world fame primarily to the dog Barry, who saved 40 people. Barry lived in a monastery and worked in the mountains from 1800 to 1812, and then grew old and became unsuitable for the service of the rescuer. Then the abbot of the monastery sent him to Bern. The city fed the dog until his death. The stuffed Barry to this day can be seen in the Zoological Museum in Bern. To this day, many Alpine Saint Bernards are named Barry in honor of the glorious mountain rescue dog. Today, as before, the monks go with their dogs on the trail in time to come to the rescue of people. Each dog has a small barrel of rum on its neck - this is a tradition ...
They began to use dogs and mountain rescue services in our Caucasus. Dogs showed excellent results in the search for people buried during earthquakes. With their help, they managed to save hundreds of victims from the ruins in September 1985 in Mexico City and in December 1988 in Armenia.
In sheep breeding, trained dogs are used for grazing sheep. The dog helps the shepherd manage the flock, searches for and drives the lagging sheep, signals about the animal that cannot move (lambing, trauma, etc.), catches and holds sick animals, etc.
Possessing exceptionally subtle hearing and sense of smell, good eyesight, she promptly warns the shepherd of approaching strangers and a predatory animal near the flock.
A dog is an indispensable helper of a shepherd if she performs the command well and accurately. In Kazakhstan, animals are trained in the dog breeding department of the Kazakh Research Institute of Sheep Breeding. However, some shepherds themselves grow and train four-legged helpers for themselves. They take young dogs (the old ones are difficult to train) and teach them to clearly follow the traditional commands: “to me”, “not to” (“fu”), “to sit”, “to lie”, “place”, etc. After that, dogs master special teams: “drive”, “guard”, “search”, etc.
Not a single shepherd in Hungary does without a small shaggy shepherd - a bullet. This is a loyal and devoted assistant. If the ram rests, then the dog grunts, pushes to the side without biting. She is also accustomed to this. The dog can move the flock, twist it clockwise or counterclockwise. Hungarian shepherd is characterized by a cheerful disposition, hard work, ardent zeal.
The bullets were withdrawn, as evidenced by the Hungarian Guide to Dog Breeding, more than 300 years ago. More than once the best representatives of this breed were awarded at international exhibitions.
Hungarian shepherd is widely known in the world. In the foreign trade cooperative enterprise Mavad, bullet export is one of the items of income. They are bought for livestock farms in Germany, France, taken overseas to America.
About thirty years ago, having familiarized ourselves with the Australian experience, our livestock breeders created a service dog breeding laboratory in Alma-Ata. Dogs from the Bullet and Pumi breeds were purchased in Hungary. These cute dogs, very sensitive, with an unusually developed shepherd's instinct. Later, English Border Collie shepherd dogs were introduced. Trained dogs of these breeds are simply irreplaceable in sheep breeding. They make it easier for shepherds to drive animals from one pasture to another, feed the sheep into a split for accounting, sorting, and shearing. Dogs are able to break the flock into groups, which is very important when approaching small ponds. Bullets are especially irreplaceable when driving flocks to pastures near crops or forest plantations. She makes sure that no animal gets on them.
In some countries, monuments were erected for dogs for their loyalty and dedication: in Paris - to St. Bernard Barry, who saved 40 people during snow drifts in the Alps, in Berlin - to a guide dog for the blind, in Nome (Alaska) - to the team leader Balta, who delivered during the epidemic in the snow-covered village of diphtheria serum, in St. Petersburg at the Institute of Experimental Medicine - a dog serving science, in Osaka (Japan) - a team of sled dogs left by an expedition in Antarctica: in Borgo San Lorenzo (Italy) A faithful man who for 14 years stubbornly went to the train every evening to meet the owner who died in the war in Edinburgh (Scotland) - a dog who lived on the grave for five years after her death and died there, at Shabuya station (near Tokyo) - to the dog Hachiko for devotion. Dog Hachiko accompanied him every day and met his master, who was leaving for work in Tokyo. The owner suddenly fell ill and died in a Tokyo hospital. But the dog still came to the station and stayed there until the last train in the hope that someday its owner would arrive. This went on for 10 years, until the day when Hachiko tragically died at this station. It is no coincidence that Charles Darwin called the dogs "loving us more than themselves."
Everyone who decided to make a four-legged friend in the house faces a problem: which dog to buy? First of all, you need to decide for what purpose you are getting an animal, and also take into account the size and temperament of the future pet. It should be determined what qualities impress you most in the future pet: the ability to be a good watchman at home or the ability to participate in sports, an easygoing, good-natured character or a spectacular, beautiful appearance.
A dog, especially an urban one, needs to be raised. Without upbringing, instead of joy, she can cause her owner serious troubles. And raising and raising a dog is not an easy job. And before you take a puppy, you need to think through everything well so that when he grows up, he will not suffer the fate of a hungry stray dog.
If dogs are kept in apartments, they must be walked at least twice a day (puppies 3-4 times). It should be borne in mind that animals cannot simultaneously empty the bladder, but do it in several stages with short breaks. Therefore, walking should be quite long. In addition, dogs just need to walk and run.
Dogs use cereals (oat, millet), meat, animal fats, potatoes, cabbage, beets, carrots. Semi-liquid gruel soup is prepared from these products. Dogs can be fed meat and meat and cereal canned food, food concentrates, fish and dairy products (milk, cottage cheese).
Dogs usually live 10-12 years. Females reach puberty at 7-8 months, males at 10-12. Sexual hunting in bitches appears 1-2 times a year. Pregnancy lasts 58-65 days. In the litter from 1-2 to 12-18 puppies that are born blind, deaf, without teeth. The auditory meatus opens on days 5-8, the eyes on 10-14, milk teeth appear on days 20-30. The suction period lasts 1-1.5 months.
At the age of 2-3 weeks, they begin to crawl out of the nest, and they can already be accustomed to cow's milk. At the age of one month, the puppies are added to the soup finely crushed bread and meat, passed through a meat grinder. After two months, during the period of weaning from mother's milk, they must independently consume different foods.
At 4 months, the puppy's coat changes to a new one, as in adult animals. At 5-7 months, their baby teeth fall out and permanent ones grow.
In puppies of individual breeds, ears and tail are specially stopped. Caucasian and Central Russian Shepherd dogs stopping ears is carried out briefly, at the level of the upper edge of the ear pocket at 5-7 days of age. For dogs whose ears should be erect, circumcision is carried out before the start of the change of milk teeth, that is, 2.5-3.5 months. Tails puppies stop for 3-5 days.
To raise a dog, as already mentioned, is a complex and painstaking task. The formation of a young dog begins at the age of 2-3 months. At this time, they give her a nickname and proceed directly to education, and in some cases to training. Intensive education lasts up to 12 months of age. The main requirements for raising dogs: maintaining cleanliness, training for a muzzle and leash, the implementation of various commands.
The puppy must be treated calmly, patiently and at the same time be consistent and persistent in developing the required skills (habits). Intolerance and irritability are completely unacceptable. Without love for the dog, doing it with her will not be a pleasure, but a heavy burden.
Indoor dogs have a beautiful appearance, which must be maintained with a variety of hygiene techniques, including cleaning, bathing and grooming. For swimming, special zoo shampoos are used ("Fluff", "Mukhtar", "Poodle", etc.). They clean the wool not only of dirt, but also of parasites, destroy a specific smell, give wool fluffiness, silkiness and softness.
In Prague there is a beauty salon for pets. His most regular customers are dogs, and the most common request is to buy, mow, or even curl a pet. The case is not so simple, because not all customers are sympathetic to the care of their appearance.
In some cities in Germany, for example, in Munich, there are even special tailoring shops for dogs. By the way the dog is “dressed”, they judge the creditworthiness and prestige of its owner.
Bringing large dogs for a walk without a muzzle is probably prohibited around the world. In Ireland, in addition to this device, they will now also wear a special electronic tag.
In accordance with the law adopted here, a small, the size of a rice grain, microcircuit will be implanted under the skin of all large dogs. Under the influence of radio waves of a certain frequency, such a device “responds” with a certain alphanumeric combination, individual for each dog.
For walking dogs in the evening, the English scientists Charles and Edward Lewis created a luminous collar (the glow is provided by light-emitting diodes with plastic lenses mounted on it). Now the owner does not lose sight of his pet, and it has become easier for car drivers to keep track of animals that may appear on the roads thanks to luminous spots.
Dogs must be registered with a veterinary clinic and have vaccination certificates.
Taking care of a dog’s health is, first of all, a measure of preventing human diseases. It is not hygienic to allow four-legged animals onto a sofa, bed, chair, kitchen, and hug and kiss them. The dog owner must observe personal hygiene. After a walk with the dog, the owner must wash his hands with soap. It is recommended that all dog care items, as well as the muzzle and leash, be kept in a specific place, not far from the dog's place. It is not allowed to feed and water the dog from his dishes and use personal items (comb, brush, etc.) to care for her.
A homeless dog is a friend who has been betrayed and driven to bitterness and despair. She can become a peddler of dangerous diseases. In some countries, including ours, stray dogs, communicating with wolves, produce half-wolves, ferocious mestizos. Wolfhounds are more dangerous than wolves. They are not afraid of fire, cause enormous damage to the fauna, attack people. Apparently, they are taking revenge on a man for his betrayal ...
The problem of feral dogs exists in many countries of the world. These include pariah dogs. They live in all southern countries of the Old World. The name pariah comes from the name of the lower caste of people in India. Pariahs are timid, distrustful, whenever possible, avoid any close contact with a person. They dig holes with exceptional speed, where they live. They feed on all sorts of garbage, catch mice, birds.
Currently, 80 thousand feral dogs roam the fields and forests of Italy. Where did they come from? These unfortunate people were thrown into the street.
A huge number of feral dogs pose a serious threat to a small wolf population. Dogs breed rapidly, and wolves are no longer able to fight them for food and habitat. But the main trouble, according to biologists, is that under the circumstances, it became common for dogs to cross wolves, which is believed to quickly lead to the complete disappearance of real wolves. And therefore, scientists ask the question: will the dogs “eat” the wolves?
The need has ripened for the organization of special shelters - detention centers for stray and abandoned dogs. This is a serious and, above all, a moral problem. And the English proverb is right a thousand times: "Not every house should have a dog, but every dog should have a house."
Such attention to the dog is justified. No living creature has found such widespread use as a dog. A subtle instinct, the ability to predict impending danger, the ability to withstand enormous loads, smartness and courage, unlimited faith and devotion to its owner put the dog in first place among the four-legged friends of a person.
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Vladimir Iosifovich Gershun
Loving us more than ourselves
Primitive tribes first tamed the dog. Humans and wolves lived nearby and earned their livelihood in one way - by hunting. Wolves sought to stay closer to people, counting on their share in the event of a successful fight with a large beast. In turn, hunters who found cubs brought them into the house, leaving them to live "about a rainy day." But a person very quickly realized that, in addition to meat, a tamed wolf has one very valuable quality - he can be a good assistant to a hunter. The dog has done a great service to man, especially at the beginning of his formation. Therefore, it is no accident that they say that "the dog brought a person to people."
Two main centers for the origin of dogs have been established - India and Asia Minor. But in many other countries, wolves inhabited a vast territory, and primitive people made attempts to tame them.
The Indian wolf is the founder of most breeds of dogs: cops, hounds, greyhounds, all kinds of terriers and lapdogs, Spitz, poodles. And our northern wolf is the progenitor of huskies and shepherds.
Dogs were originally used for meat. Known and now meat Chinese breed of dogs Chow Chow. With the development of animal husbandry, four-legged animals have a new duty - to protect herds.
In ancient Egypt, in the house of every Egyptian, dogs were held in high esteem and respect. When the animal died, then all the households observed deep mourning. The body of the deceased was embalmed and solemnly carried to a special cemetery for dogs. All members of the funeral procession wept bitterly and lamented, as it should be when the dear family member died.
The ancient Egyptians treated the dog as a deity. The ancient Egyptian god Anubis - the patron saint of the dead, as well as necropolises (burial grounds) was depicted on the walls of burial chambers and tombs in the image of a man with a dog's head. Anubis escorted the departed souls to the courtroom.
The image of the shepherd dog of the departed souls also had analogues in the ancient culture of Greece, Rome, India, Mexico, and other countries. According to ancient Greek mythology, the three-headed dog Cerberus, guarding the entrance to the underground kingdom of Hades, did not allow the souls of the dead to return to the society of living people.
And today, in some nations, the body of the deceased does not surrender to the earth or fire, but is left in the "care" of dogs or predatory animals. According to their belief, the dog’s stomach is the best container for the deceased.
Many ancient states used military dogs in military affairs. So, the Carthaginian army had a whole dog legion: the dogs rushed to the enemy cavalry and grabbed the horses by the nostrils. For protection from arrows and swords, animals were put on shells and chain mail. Collars with large spikes protected them from attack by enemy dogs.
The Spanish conquerors found in Central America dogs without hair with gray skin. Mexicans fed them and ate. Many of them were fat as pigs. The famous navigator and traveler James Cook, who visited the island of Tahiti in the Pacific Ocean in 1769, wrote: “The main food of the islanders is vegetables, the natives absorb them in large quantities. The natives tamed pigs, birds and dogs. They taught us to eat meat of the latter, and some came to the conclusion that this dish is second only to the English lamb. It should be noted that the dogs of the South Seas eat vegetables ... "
There were times when dog meat saved people from starvation. An example of this is the Royal Amundsen expedition to the South Pole in 1911. The stored dog food allowed the expedition of the Norwegian explorer to successfully achieve the goal and safely return. Could the expression come from here: “I ate the dog in this business”, that is, reached the top - the pole in some business? Dog meat remains a treat among some nations today.
Cynology - the science of dogs - is the foundation of modern dog breeding. She studies the anatomy and physiology of the dog, the origin and evolution of breeds, breeding, breeding, feeding, keeping, training and its use. Cynology is taught at the departments of hunting in some higher and secondary educational institutions.
The dog has a great scent. She is able to distinguish up to half a million different smells, therefore she is used in criminal investigations, she serves at the border, controls gas leakage (“gas workers”), searches for minerals (“geologists”), checks cargo at customs (irreplaceable in search of drugs) . But ideas about the possibilities of the dog are expanding every year. So, one of the experts had the bold idea to entrust her with a very important task - to participate in the artificial insemination of cows. The ability of cows to artificial insemination is high, but provided that the moment allotted for this act by nature is correctly “caught”. Bulls feel the cow's readiness quite accurately, apparently guided by their sense of smell. But the breeder to guess the "rush hour", of course, is more difficult. That's where the dog scent came in handy.
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In this book, young readers will familiarize themselves with the history of the domestication of certain species of animals, learn about the customs and traditions of different peoples associated with the cult of “our smaller brothers”, and will read with interest about the nature, behavior, habits and extraordinary abilities of modern inhabitants of the farmstead. The author acquaints readers with the new discoveries of scientists, on the basis of which modern methods of "designing" highly productive animals are developed.
For a wide range of readers.
A chapter from a book on dogs.
"The subconscious can do anything!"
Dear Reader The book "Loving Us More Than Myself" Vladimir Gershun is probably worth having in your home library. Humor is not presented in random trifles and not always on the surface, but is caused by an internal etheric sensation and is subordinate to the whole system. The main character instantly evokes approval and sympathy, you easily begin to imagine yourself in his place and empathize with him. The relevance of the problems taken as a basis can be classified as eternal, because as long as there are people their relationships will always be complex and diverse. There is a desire to look at yourself, to compare yourself with the described events and situations, to embrace yourself with another coverage - to the full and breadth of the soul. All images and elements are so filigree inscribed in the plot that until the last page you "see" what is happening with your own eyes. The denouement to surprise was unexpected and left a pleasant feeling in the shower. The plot unfolds in a picturesque place, which easily forms the basis and becomes almost native and as if familiar from childhood. Positive mystery hangs over the plot, but word by word it is displayed in a stunningly interesting picture that is understandable to everyone. Dialogues of heroes are interesting and informative due to their different views on the world and the difference in characters. The creator is not in a hurry to prematurely reveal the idea of the work, but through actions with the help of hints in dialogues gradually brings the reader to it. “Vladimir Iosifovich Gershun, who loves us more than themselves,” read free online, thanks to a skillfully intricate plot and dynamic events, it will be interesting not only to fans of this genre.
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1351 year. Only 3 years have passed since the military conflict between Unity and the Tassen Empire. On the worlds.