How to water vegetables in the garden so that they grow well and produce a large and high-quality crop? Tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplant, cabbage, carrots, beets, parsley, onions and garlic - each has its own characteristics of watering. Find out about them from our article.
As it grows, this vegetable needs to be irrigated unequally. It is necessary to ensure that the soil after planting tomato seedlings is moist, then the likelihood of a good survival rate increases. Until the fruit appears, the soil should remain slightly moist under the plant. During the development of fruits, tomatoes need the most generous watering. When the tomatoes ripen, the moisture in the soil is again maintained moderate, since moisture causes rotting of the fruit.
During seedling planting and before setting fruit, the soil must be wetted about 25 cm in depth. Another 5 cm increases the depth of wetting of the soil during the appearance of the fruit. Tomatoes need to be watered infrequently (1 time in 10 days), pouring about 30 liters per 1 sq. m. In the absence of rain and during fruit ripening, the plant needs to be watered more often, while the volume of water is reduced by one third.
Tomatoes do not need humidification. Water them carefully, pour water under the bush. Only at high air temperatures, irrigation is allowed. Cancel watering when it's cool and damp.
Cucumbers are very demanding on water. Their roots are very shallow in the soil, and the leaves are quite large, therefore, a lot of moisture evaporates from the area of the leaf blade. Nevertheless, watering should not be abused. Although 2 times a week - this is the rule of watering cucumbers. Watered so that the cucumber leaves are not wet at night.
To lower the roots down into the soil, cucumbers before the appearance of flowers can be limited a little by watering. With the appearance of the first flowers, watering begins to produce every 3 days, preferably up to 17 hours. You need to water cucumbers every day in hot weather, and if the nights are cold, it is better to water in the morning.
Irrigation of plants should be abandoned if the leaves become spotty. Infected cucumbers are not watered even at the root. It is necessary to make grooves for careful watering (around the plant) and try not to oversaturated the soil with moisture.
Pepper and eggplant
At the beginning of growth, pepper and eggplant are rarely watered when the fruits appear - often and always with plenty of water. The main principle when watering peppers and eggplant: pour water under the root or along the grooves, water after 8 days.
Eggplants love watering precisely on grooves. The amount of watering per season for these plants is only 10-12. In the morning or in the evening you need to carry out irrigation, and if the weather is hot for a long time, then at night too. If it gets colder, then you should refuse to water, otherwise gray rot will appear.
Proper watering of cucumbers
The root system of cucumbers is poorly developed, this feature is due to the fact that initially these vegetables grew in the hot humid climate of India, and there are no problems with precipitation. Therefore, cucumbers received plenty of moisture.
Well, in our greenhouses there will always be insufficient moisture, the top layer of the soil quickly becomes crusty, tanning, the roots receive less moisture needed for growth. By the way, cucumbers absorb moisture even by leaves, this feature of them also comes from the original place of plant growth - tropical forests.
Therefore, you need to water the cucumbers precisely by sprinkling, carefully spraying the entire plant. The foliage will absorb liquid along with the root system. In general, cucumbers are able to absorb moisture even from the air, especially if your greenhouse has a special moisturizing container with water.
Water the cucumbers once a week until the buds appear. After the appearance of buds, the number of irrigations is increased to 2 times a week. Watering time is usually closer to 16 hours, at this time the heat subsides, but coolness does not come yet.
If the days are hot, then the frequency of watering can be increased and water the cucumbers every other day. If the night temperatures are cold for the summer, then the waterings are transferred to the morning hours to cheer up the cucumbers after a cool night.
The rate of water consumption for an adult plant with fruits is 30 liters per square meter.
If spots appeared on the leaves of the cucumber, then the plant is infected and irrigation should not be carried out so as not to spread the infection to healthy leaves. But you don’t need to remove diseased castings. Just pour such cucumbers into furrows, not under the root.
Make furrows on both sides of the plant and pour water into them. The roots receive the necessary moisture, and the leaves remain dry and will not spread the infection. Stop watering when water is no longer absorbed on the furrow.
I know that some gardeners cut damaged leaves from cucumbers. Yes, in the early stages of the disease this is true, so you can prevent the infection from breeding. But make sure that your plantings still have a supply of strength, do not cut out all the foliage, otherwise you will simply be left without a crop. Even the infected leaf continues to supply the vine with converted solar energy, but alas, the cut leaf does not.
Carrots, Beets, Parsley
Carrots and beets love water. This is especially manifested during the growth of seeds and with the appearance of the first leaves, i.e., at the beginning of growth. Naturally, abundant watering is necessary when the root system is formed, during the development of the root crop. Humidity is maintained in a soil layer 30 cm deep. The soil for carrots should be well moistened after planting and before the first shoots. Therefore, it is covered with a film (before germination). Water carefully, from a watering can through a spray.
Watering beets, parsley is often not worth it. Over the summer season enough 5 times. In the heat, so that the plants do not wilt, frequent watering is necessary. So that from the daytime heat a dense crust does not form on the soil, you need to water it in the morning or evening in the grooves.
Cabbage needs a lot of moisture to nourish its head, so it comes first among vegetables that love water. The rate of watering cabbage per 1 square. m can reach 50 liters. If the temperature outside is high, it is better to choose the irrigation method for irrigation, be sure to do this without the sun. Daytime sprinkling provokes burns and mucous bacteriosis. If it gets colder, you need to pour water at the very root. Early varieties of cabbage are watered more often (every 2 days), and later varieties need daily watering.
Watering tomatoes at the root
But tomatoes, unlike cucumbers, increased humidity is useless. And this is important to understand, as some plant cucumbers with tomatoes in the same greenhouse, and then they are surprised at poor crops. Either tomatoes grow if dry, or cucumbers if wet.
Tomatoes should be watered under the root, avoiding sprinkling. In the extreme heat above the tomatoes, you can create a shading from the net, I saw these in tropical countries with a hot climate, and we have them for sale. The net delays part of the sun's rays, and the tomatoes respond very well to this.
Watering tomatoes produce in the morning, up to 10 hours. At the beginning of the flowering period - once a week, and then, after fruit set, once every 10 days. If the weather is wet or cold, then irrigation is completely canceled.
The rate of water consumption for tomatoes is 30 liters per square meter.
When I planted my first tomatoes, I went on a business trip for three weeks and could not water my plantings. I was very worried that everything would burn, not mature, bend ... But when I arrived, I was surprised to find strong and juicy fruits on the branches! So, the main thing with tomatoes is not to pour. A good plant, especially for people like me 🙂
Onion and garlic
Onion roots do not develop very deeply. It is advisable to water the onions and garlic along the grooves, about 1 time per week. If it rains, the weather is wet, then it is better to completely cancel the watering of the bulbs. In dry weather, watering is done after 5 days. It is better to stop watering 1 month before harvesting the grown crop, then the bulbs will be better stored.
If you know how to properly water vegetables in the garden, in addition to those that we have listed, write to us in the comments about this.
How to water peppers and eggplant
That's what I don’t want to grow in any way, it's pepper. I don’t want to try already. How many attempts to grow something, but all in vain ... Not mine!
And like watering according to the instructions under the root once a week, not very plentifully. Water consumption per square meter was 20 liters. All as recommended, but something did not like the peppers - did not grow ...
About eggplant: exactly the same watering scheme. For the season you need to carry out 10 waterings. The best time for watering is morning. In hot weather, watering is carried out in the evening, before sunset, so that during the night the moisture saturates the soil properly and the plant benefits from moisture to the maximum.
How often to water in cabbage
Cabbage is a real water chowder. With it, you do not need to fear waterlogging. The rate of water consumption is up to 50 liters per square meter. Only in this case the head will be juicy and large.
If the weather is hot and dry, then water the plant in the mornings and evenings daily, if it is late varieties, or once every two days, if these are early varieties of cabbage.
Watering late cabbage is stopped two weeks before cutting. By the way, last year my mother cut off some cabbage from my mother’s cabbage. All season she took care of her, watered, fed, rejoiced at how large the heads would be. But I never tried that crop. It also happens…
Norms of watering carrots after sowing
After you have planted carrot seeds, keep the soil moist until the first shoots. I even recommend covering the planting bed with polyethylene so that the soil is warm and less water evaporates from it. When the seedlings appear, the film should be removed and give the sprouts access to fresh air and sunlight.
Irrigation is done by sprinkling, the pressure of the water should be minimal so as not to wash off the delicate sprouts. The rate of water consumption is 30 liters per square meter. If the weather is not hot, then water the carrots once every 10 days. If hot, then twice as often. Stop watering the plants 3 weeks before harvesting.
Beets and parsley watering 5 times per season
Beets and parsley feel quite comfortable with sparse watering. Five waterings per season is enough if the summer is not a record hot. The rate of water consumption is 30 liters per square meter.
Pay attention to the fact that in the heat it is necessary to water according to the situation, and not according to the standards. And if you see that the plant has begun to dry out, then water it properly, otherwise you can completely lose the crop.
Watering is best done in the evening. The best way to water is in the furrows along the entire length of the ridge.
Watering radishes often and gradually
With radishes, an interesting feature is that this plant loves watering, which makes the flesh of the plant tender, juicy, and not bitter. Watering time is optimal at 16 hours. Water consumption - once every two days, 10 liters per square meter. Also, do not allow the formation of a dry crust on the ground - immediately loosen, so that the plant receives water without problems.
Potato watering with and without mulching
Potatoes are best watered in the furrow. Moisture should flow to the tubers, not to the tops. After watering, moist soil in dry summers is best covered with straw. This technique will save moisture, prevent weed growth, and therefore save your time, as weeding may not be necessary at all. You can water the potatoes in the mulch once a month.
If you are reluctant to mess with the mulch, then water the potatoes weekly, along the furrow. Water consumption - 30 liters per square meter. All irrigation is stopped a week before the harvest.
Just water the pumpkin and zucchini
Pumpkin and squash are watered gently, under the root. Best in the evening, avoiding moisture on the leaves. The rate of water consumption per plant is 10 liters. Before the first hilling, the plants are watered twice.
After the first hilling and before the formation of the fruit, watering is completely stopped. Resumption of watering should begin after the fruits become the size of a small cucumber.
The consumption rate is 10 liters per plant, the irrigation frequency is once every 10 days. A month before harvesting, all irrigation should be stopped.
Separately, according to the norms of watering for zucchini: an adult plant is watered under the root once a month, pouring 20 liters of liquid.
General recommendations for watering vegetables
Make sure that the soil under the plantings of your vegetables does not dry out. If possible, then organize drip irrigation, I wrote about it here - http://1dacha-sad.com/kapelnyj-poliv-svoimi-rukami-sxema-kapelnogo-poliva/.
Any differences in hydration adversely affect the condition of the fruit. For example, cabbages crack at the cabbage. Cracks from moisture drops appear in root vegetables. Even tomatoes can crack from a series of droughts and waterlogs.
Watering for cabbage
Cabbage is perhaps the largest water chowder of all vegetable crops. When she ties head, the rate of watering is minimum 30 l per 1 sq.m. If the cabbage is thirsty, pests immediately attack it - a cruciferous flea and a cabbage fly. A pinkish-bluish coating may appear on the leaves of the plant.
It turns out that it is necessary to water the cabbage in different ways, depending on the weather: if it is hot and dry, sprinkling is used, and in cool weather it is watered under the root. In this case, the soil should be wet to a depth of at least 40 cm.
Later varieties of cabbage are recommended to be watered daily, and the early ones are every 2-3 days, not allowing the soil to dry out. If, after a drought, you decide to water the plants abundantly, or suddenly it rains, this will only cause the heads of cabbage to crack.
Water for tomatoes
The fact that the plant wants to drink is signaled by its leaves: during drought, they become smaller, take upright position, twist. The ovaries that have formed may fall, and if the fruit is already poured, they slowly grow and ripen, often vertex rot appears on them.
Water the tomatoes under the root - sprinkling is permissible only in very hot and dry weather. Excess moisture in the air can cause illness. For this culture recommend morning watering. When the first flowers appear, they are watered with a frequency of once a week, and then every 10-12 days, spending 1 liter of 30 liters of water.
How to water cucumbers
Cucumber loves water, so you need to water it often. Although he turned out to be a rather controversial nature :) Judge for yourself:
- before flowering cucumbers can be watered no more than once a week (and not even watered if the rain has passed) - so that the plants develop a strong root system,
- when the flowers appeared, it is necessary to water every 3-4 days, or even daily (if there is heat),
- preferred for cucumbers sprinkling - their foliage actively evaporates moisture, but if you find spots on the leaves that indicate a disease of the plant, sprinkling should be excluded and watered only in grooveslaid along a row of plants
- in warm weather should be watered after noonbut until 17.00, and if the nights are cold, it is recommended morning watering.
The soil under the cucumbers after irrigation should be moist to a depth of at least 40 cm, for adult plants for this you will have to pour about 20-30 liters of water per 1 sq.m.
Water eggplant and pepper
Thirsty eggplants and peppers stop growing and do not bloom. To avoid such a misfortune, every 7-10 days they need to be watered, spending 15-30 l of water per 1 sq.m (depending on weather conditions).
Water the plants under the root or in the furrows laid along the row. In the heat, you can apply morning or evening irrigation, and if the temperature drops below +15 degrees, watering should be completely eliminated - otherwise there is a risk of damage to plants with gray rot.
How much water do carrots and beets need
Carrot seeds must be in moist soil until the first seedlings appear. Often gardeners use a film: it does not allow moisture to evaporate, and you can water the carrot garden much less often. With the advent of seedlings, the film needs to be removed, and then every 10 days, water the plantings abundantly using a watering can with a small strainer. 3 weeks before harvesting, watering is stopped. Water consumption - 30 l per 1 sq.m.
If there is not enough water, carrots can form a coarse, ugly root crop, or even completely discard the peduncle. That the plant suffers from thirst, you can guess from the slightly twisted and darkened leaves.
But beets do not require such worries - you can water it much less often. Over the entire season, it is enough to water the beet crops 4-5 times (of course, if there is no intense heat, and there are occasional rains). Water consumption is the same as for carrots, and watering is recommended in the early morning or evening, into grooves along the plants.
But it is also not worth it to dry the beets: from drought, it, like carrots, can proceed to the formation of peduncles instead of forming a root crop. And if it does, then it will come out tough and tasteless. Beetroot signals a lack of watering with the brown-violet color of the foliage, which, moreover, is noticeably smaller during drought.
When you need to water onions and garlic
The yellowing tips of the pen remind: it's time to water. But if the weather is rainy, these crops cost natural moisture, in dry and hot to go to the garden with a watering can or hose will have every 5-6 days.
When about a month remains before harvesting, watering should be stopped altogether: from excess moisture, the bulbs mature worse, and then are poorly stored in the winter. Plants need the most water when the bulbs are poured - the norm at this time is 30-35 L per 1 sq.m. In the spring, while the root system is formed and the foliage grows, use no more than 30 liters per 1 sq.m.
How to water zucchini and pumpkin
These crops do not need water too often, but in many ways:
- zucchini - once a month, 20 l per 1 plant,
- pumpkin - before hilling, once in a volume of 7-8 liters per plant, then do not water it for about a month, after which every 10 days 10 liters are poured under each bush, stopping watering completely a month before harvesting.
Watering should only be done under the root, pouring water very carefully so as not to expose the root system. Choose morning or evening hours for “water treatments”: in the afternoon, the probability of burns is too high.
Do I need watering potatoes
Frankly: I have never watered potatoes, until this spring. I read, of course, that he also needed watering, but in me he grew up fine without it. And then I was afraid that in the dry, hot earth the tubers would just bake instead of sprouting. In general, it is recommended to water potatoes once a week, according to 20-30 liters of water per 1 sq.m landings. If after watering the soil is slightly dried, loosened and mulched with humus or peat, then you can do it once a month.
Do you often have to water the garden or does the weather take on some of the work? And how do you water - by the rules or by intuition? :)
What water to water.
You, my water, treasured, living,
Imagine your formation on Earth.
You carry, from edge to edge,
In every drop - the entire Universe Information.
April 22, 2005 (Lelnik)
(To the work of Viktor Dmitrievich Plykin “Trace on the Water”)
Water is the most widespread on the planet and the most mysterious substance so far. It can be in different states, has many different properties, including memory. Water can behave both as an elixir of life and as its active enemy.
In the ice-water transition, the density increases by about 10%, and we can assume that this value in a certain way characterizes the number of H2O molecules trapped in the cavity. Upon transition to a solid state, a qualitative transformation of the crystalline structure of water takes place: almost 100% of its molecules are converted into a single type. In ordinary tap water there are up to 30 types of varieties of water molecules, which are separated according to the structure of the crystal lattice.
Above 0 ° С, water molecules, due to thermal disturbances (heating), lose their ability to form a constant rigid lattice, but the tendency to ordering persists. Water is in a state that is conditionally characterized as "quasicrystalline." At that temperature, when the ice turns into water, many more hydrogen bonds (structures) are preserved, and in the water there are associates of molecules with an open tetrahedral structure (structured water). An increase in temperature causes the decomposition of these spatial associates, which leads to a further increase in the density of water - up to a temperature of + 4 ° С. With a further increase in temperature, the regular expansion of water, caused by the intensification of molecular motion, surpasses the effect of the structural adjustment "ice-water", and the density of water gradually decreases. That is, water retains the tetrahedral structure of clusters only in the temperature limit up to + 4 ° С, and with increasing water temperature, already above + 7 ° С, such stressed clusters become less and less.
That is why, paradoxically, but from an energy point of view, the most useful water for watering plants is naturally chilled, from natural sources: springs, springs, melted snow, rain (I mean directly rain, as a rule, rain drops are cold, see below more about the nature of the rain) until it was further heated. As a result, its structure and the structure of clusters are changing, and therefore the information recorded on them.
Although there is a strong opinion among advanced agronomists and amateur gardeners that it is better to pour warm water (for example, waste water from a storage barrel, tank ...). From the energy-information point of view, everything looks the other way around. It is better to water with water of natural natural temperature: 0ºС to + 7 ° С, immediately from sources, rather than heated. Heated water carries distorted and introduced information ... which can do more harm than good.
When we are as water
We have at least some doubt
And everyone has an opinion on him, -
Then water: il poison, il honey,
Or an occasion, or inspiration.
However, if, when heated from 0 ° C, the water is subjected to a “charging” energy effect of electromagnetic fields of a certain frequency, it is possible to obtain “charged” water with specified characteristics. If you know how to do it ...
But under ordinary conditions, it is better to use naturally chilled water from natural sources, as the most useful for plants when irrigating them. The introduction of such water, for example, in small portions during drip irrigation or irrigation through sprayers, will not significantly cool the soil even under heat-loving plants. By the way, the temperature of the water that is supplied by the capillary system from the depths to the upper layers of the soil is just + 4 ° C, unless the soil is unearthed (in the excavated soil, the capillary system is destroyed, i.e. absent. To restore the capillary system, at least a season is needed with soil sodding to restore the living structure of the soil).
CORRECT WATERING not only increases the yield, but also significantly improves the quality of plants. When watering, you should take into account the temperature and humidity, light, soil condition, open or closed soil, the development phase and the specifics of specific types of crops. Watering should be rare and plentiful, so that the water completely moistens the root layer. Poor and frequent watering is harmful. Frequent watering is needed only for finely rooted plants (onions, radishes), since the topsoil dries quickly. In no case should you leave a crust of earth near the plant, which is formed after drying (evaporation) of water, especially in hot weather. It is very dense, and air does not pass through it. We can say with absolute certainty that it is better not to water the plant at all than to water and leave the crust. The crust must be loosened (the mulched soil does not form a crust and does not dry out, except in the hottest weather, but is replenished with moisture due to the capillary system (the first natural watering) and at night or in the morning, due to temperature differences (“dew point” ), and the higher the air temperature during the day, the greater the temperature difference at night in the upper mulled soil layer, the more water will condense (the second natural watering), in the end, it is easy to moisten with watering, it’s better to rare, but lnym.
It is not recommended to water the plants in the hot sun during the day, as the plant has adapted to tolerate heat, and we artificially make it evaporate moisture. In addition, this can cause burns to plants (drops of water on the fleecy leaves focus the sun's rays). And yet, you need to mulch all the soil, but not everyone has enough ingenuity or hay straw. Therefore, mulch at least that piece of land that you will irrigate. Mulch is necessary so that trapped moisture on the soilnot so much heated and did not evaporate!Put the thermometer on the ground - there + 45 ° and above! This is not a joke! And it turns out that droplets of water, slowly falling onto the soil, will quickly warm up, and we will water the plants with warm water. There is not enough oxygen in warm water. As a result, the plant withers, the trugor falls! —The pressure that the vacuole exerts on the cell wall, due to which the tissue shape of the plants is maintained. The loss of turgor leads, say, to wilting.
And the optimum summer temperature for the soil is 12-15-20 ° C, depending on which crops. But sorry, not 45-50.If the soil is mulched, then the temperature will be just 12-20 ° C. Put your hand under the mulch and you’ll understand everything.
It is better to pour cold water in a warm evening, after 17 hours, preferably after sunset, especially on heavy soils. In the evening, the soil air, being cooled, is compressed, and water is easily absorbed into the soil pores. In addition, in the evening the wind weakens and evaporation decreases. And if the dry period is delayed - at night or in the morning (because it is at this time of day that dew forms and it has a temperature of about + 4 ° C!). On cloudy days, watering can be watered at any time of the day. In sunny day, watering is simply useless and harmful, the sun evaporates water from the bare surface of the soil, forming a crust, leaving the plants without the proper amount of water and air. But mulled soil can be moistened at any time. the time of day is practically without moisture loss and the crust does not form on the soil.
Many adhere to the common literary recommendations to pour warm water in the evening. Say, cold water can cause illness. And watering in the evening provides the greatest absorption of water - the best absorption. But the pay for it is high.
Firstly, the root and vegetative systems of plants have different temperature requirements. The root system, as a rule, develops more intensively below the one at which the vegetative part feels comfortable. This is the habit of plants. In nature, the roots of the plants are covered with a heat-insulating mulch (dead and growing herbs, leaves), which keeps the temperature more even: it is cooler in the area during the day and warmer than in the air at night.
Obviously this habit appears in onions, tomatoes, potatoes. Tomatoes and potatoes generally cease to bear fruit if the soil temperature in the basal zone has become higher than + 25 ° С. And now we realize that for many people watering occurs mainly during hot periods, and warm water pours out in the evening on hot soil in the afternoon, and which plant needs such a bath? What plant is used to this? It happens that rain falls on hot soil, but it is cold, and before the rain air pressure drops and the pores of the soil open.
The second one. If watering is carried out in the morning, then possible drops live on the foliage for a few hours, and if in the evening, then another ten hours are added to the life of drops. Does it need to be reminded that a moist microclimate in foliage, which lasts up to half a day, is the best background for fungal diseases. Although not the absence of viruses, infections and fungal diseases is the key to a good and healthy crop, but the ability of the plant's immune system to withstand all sorts of misfortunes. And soil processes without fungi in general probably will not work, and soil moisture needs this moisture, especially since many of them live right on the surface of the soil and work intensively in wet night and morning hours. It is ideal when mulch lies between the plants on the soil, moistened at night and in the morning and aired in the afternoon or evening. Such ridges even smell different.
From a chemistry textbook for Grade 8: Carbon dioxide does not dissolve in warm water used for irrigation, a solution devoid of carbonic acid enters the roots, and plants experience carbon starvation. In cold water, on the contrary, carbon dioxide is intensively dissolved, it is enriched with carbonic acid and a full carbon nutrition of plants is provided.
The best way of irrigation is to capture rainwater during the vegetative period of plants and snow retention in the autumn-winter period using spring (any annual crops) green manure and vegetable residues of the garden. Better yet, constantly mulled beds with dry mulch: leaves, straw, hay ... There should be no bare earth at all, even in the aisles between the beds. Water evaporates intensively from a bare piece of land and around the perimeter from under a sodded plot. And the mulch keeps water, carbon dioxide and other gases and minerals in a balanced form for plant nutrition, both the root system and the oyster leaf apparatus!
Thus, planting can be started earlier, because a balanced amount of water will be in the soil all the time. Watering will not be needed at all!
Natalia, I admire you! I only dream about it! I go to nano-farming slowly, but to mechanize and even computerize my beds is my dream! So far I am only doing watering and top dressing, just like you, through pipes that I dig into the ground under the root of the plant. I mulch the basal part with plastic bags, which I pierce and attach to the ground with chopsticks. Periodically, I raise them for ventilation.